pituitary gland site
The pituitary gland is one of the glands of the endocrine system, and what distinguishes the endocrine glands is that it secretes its hormones directly into the blood. As for the location of the pituitary gland; Indeed, it is located in the skull below the middle part of the brain, specifically in the bony structure known as the Turkish saddle (Latin: Sella turcica), which is located behind the nose and just below the hypothalamus. The size of the pituitary gland is on average the size of a pea, and it weighs Adults have about 500-900 mg, and it should be noted that the pituitary gland secretes a group of important hormones for the body, and the secretion of these hormones is controlled by the level of some other hormones in the body, as well as an area in the brain known as the hypothalamus, and it is worth noting that the hormones that Secreted by the pituitary gland, it may have a direct effect on the body, and it may affect the body indirectly through its control of other endocrine glands.
pituitary gland hormones
In fact, the pituitary gland consists of two main parts, one of which is known as the anterior lobe, and the second part is known as the posterior lobe. The following is a statement of the hormones of each part:
- Anterior segment hormones: The anterior segment of the pituitary gland produces a group of hormones, which can be summarized as follows:
- Posterior part hormones: In fact, the posterior part of the pituitary gland does not produce hormones, but rather stores some hormones that are manufactured from other parts of the body, so that the posterior part of the pituitary gland releases them when the body needs it, and these hormones are:
- Thyroid stimulating hormone: This hormone stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and release its hormones. Basal metabolic rate, in addition to the role of thyroid hormones in controlling growth and puberty, and their impact on most functions and organs of the body.
- Growth Hormone: The function of this hormone is to control growth and metabolism.
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone, or adrenocorticotropic hormone, whose function is to control the secretions of the adrenal gland. In fact, there are two adrenal glands in the human body, each located above one of the body’s kidneys. The function of the cortisol hormone is to control the body’s reaction to stress, in addition to its role in controlling and controlling the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
- Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone mainly control the growth and release of eggs in women and sperm in men, and these two hormones also play an important role in Production of reproductive hormones such as estrogen and testosterone.
- Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, the skin pigment known scientifically as melanin, can be defined as the pigment that gives the skin its color, and it is secreted by the melanocytes in the skin. Darker skin color.
- Prolactin: This hormone stimulates the secretion of milk by breast cells, and this hormone is very important during the mother’s breastfeeding period.
- Anti-Diuretic Hormone: This hormone is secreted when plasma osmolality is high, which is one of the indicators of dehydration in the body. The anti-diuretic hormone works to re-absorb water through the kidneys and thus retain it in the body. .
- Oxytocin: This hormone mainly affects the muscles of the uterus, stimulating them to contract during childbirth, and this hormone also affects the breast glands and stimulates them to produce milk.
pituitary gland tumors
Pituitary tumors can be defined as abnormal growth of pituitary gland cells, and it is worth noting that most pituitary tumors are benign and not cancerous, and do not spread to different parts of the body, but are limited to the pituitary gland and nearby tissues, and it should be noted that tumors The pituitary gland may cause the pituitary gland to secrete large amounts of its hormones, or cause a decrease in its production of its own hormones. As for the cause of pituitary gland tumors, it is not known so far, but it is believed that the genetic factor may play a role in this, although there are many cases of pituitary tumors in which the genetic factor has no effect on their appearance. The pituitary gland may cause some complications, including loss of vision as a result of the pituitary tumor causing pressure on the optic nerve, and pituitary tumors may also cause the patient to suffer from permanent disorders in the levels of hormones in the body, as the patient suffers from a deficiency of important hormones, and often requires giving The patient has these hormones in their manufactured form to compensate for the deficiency.
- ↑ “Pituitary gland”, www.healthdirect.gov.au, Retrieved May 26, 2018. Edited.
- ^ a b “Pituitary gland”, www.britannica.com, Retrieved May 26, 2018. Edited.
- ↑ “Which Hormones Are Secreted By The Anterior Pituitary?”, www.pituitary.org, Retrieved May 26, 2018. Edited.
- ↑ “Pituitary tumors”, www.mayoclinic.org, Retrieved May 26, 2018. Edited.
Where is the pituitary gland located?