The Czech Republic, or what is officially known as the Czech Republic, is one of the countries of Central Europe, and one of the countries of the European Union. The capital of the Czech Republic is Prague, which is the largest city in the Czech Republic. The republic consists of 13 provinces or provinces besides the capital. The reason for naming the Czechs by this name is due to a people called the Czech people, one of the West Slavic peoples whose name emerged in the ninth century AD. The total area of the Czech Republic is 78,867 km2.
The Czech Republic is located in the continent of Europe, specifically in Central Europe, or what is known as the Central European region, and it is an internal country; That is, it does not overlook any bodies of water. With regard to state borders, the Czech Republic is bordered on the north by Poland and Germany, on the south by Austria, on the east by the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and on the west by Germany. The total length of its borders is 2,143 km, and the city’s coordinates extend between longitude 49 45 north and latitude 15 30 east. The Czech Republic follows UTC, which is 1 hour longer (UTC+1).
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country; Any country that does not overlook any sea ports, and thus is characterized by the length of its land borders with its neighboring countries, where the length of these borders is 2,143 kilometers. Although there are no coasts for the Czech Republic, it includes 3 rivers flowing through its land, namely the Elbe River, the Vltava River, and the Oder River. The republic is divided into three main historical regions:
- Bohemia: which has formed a large part of the Czech Republic since 1993.
- Moravia: It was part of Czechoslovakia, then became part of the Czech Republic in the twentieth century.
- Silesia: It is located in the eastern part of the Czech Republic, along with Moravia.
According to the latest statistics conducted in 2016, 10,644,842 people live in the Czech Republic, which is ranked 87th among the countries in the world in terms of population. There are not many different ethnicities in the Czech Republic; The Czechs make up 64.3% of the population, while the Moravians make up 5% of the total population, the Slovaks make up 1.4% of the population, and 27.5% of the population belongs to unknown ethnicities, according to 2011 statistics.
The official language of the Czech Republic is the Czech language, spoken by 95.4% of the population, and the population also speaks the Slovak language, which the number of speakers of which reaches 1.6% of the population, while other languages are spoken by the rest of the population. As for religion, the largest proportion of the Czech people are without religion, and their number reaches 34.5%, while 10.4% of the population profess the Christian religion and belong to the Roman Catholic faith, while 1.1% of the population belongs to Protestantism. Other religions are spread in the Czech Republic as well, and their percentage among the population, besides unknown religions, reaches 54%, according to 2011 figures.
Czech system of government
The system of government in the Czech Republic is a democratic parliamentary system based on the constitution that was written on January 1, 1993, in addition to the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms. The president of the republic is elected through fair and fair elections every five years, and the president can be re-elected for only one more presidential round. The authorities in the Czech Republic are divided between three authorities:
- The Legislative Authority: It is represented by two chambers; They are the House of Parliament and the Senate, the members of which are chosen by direct vote of the citizens. The duties and number of members of each council differ as follows:
- The Executive Authority: It is represented in the President of the Republic and the Government. The latter constitutes the supreme executive force in the republic, represented by ministers and administrative entities. The government implements the decisions issued by the parliament after the parliament has given its confidence to the government and the cabinet. As for the President of the Republic, he is also the commander of the armed forces, and among his most prominent functions are the dissolution of the Parliament, the signing of resolutions, the appointment of ministers and other members of the government, and others.
- The Judicial Authority: It is represented by the courts and judges, and it follows an independent court law. The judiciary consists of 15 judges who are appointed for a 10-year term. The courts that report to the judiciary are the Supreme Court, the Supreme Administrative Court, the Supreme Courts, the Regional Courts, and the District Courts.
- Parliament: It consists of 200 members, who are elected every 4 years. The members of the Council are divided into 18 committees, each specialized in a specific field. Among the main functions of the Parliament are discussing and approving laws, approving the draft state budget, and voting to grant confidence to the government.
- Senate: The Senate consists of 81 members elected by Czech citizens. A senator serves a term of 6 years, but elections for this assembly are held every two years; One third of the council’s members are elected every two years. Among the most prominent functions of the Senate are discussing and approving bills, proposing new laws, expressing disapproval of international treaties and war affairs, approving the appointment of judges, and others.
Czechs have been known since 400 BC, when tribes called Celts lived there. The Romans called them (Boii), from whom Bohemia got its name. In the year 100 AD, the area was occupied by German peoples called the Marcomanni. In the sixth century AD, the Slovaks flocked to the Czechs, and the region consisted of scattered tribes. The first empire was established in the Czech Republic in the ninth century AD and was founded by a people called the Moravian, and it was called the Great Moravian Empire, which included both Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and parts of Germany and Poland. The empire converted to Christianity, and it ended in 896 AD when the Magyars invaded and occupied Slovakia, but the Czechs remained independent.
In the ninth century AD, the Czechs became part of the Empire of Charlemagne, a man who claimed to be the successor of the ancient Roman emperors, and conquered many countries of Western and Central Europe, and the kingdom was known at the time as the Holy Roman Empire. After his death, the eastern part of the Czech Republic joined Germany. In the thirteenth century AD, the Czechs flourished, and the main reason behind this was the discovery of gold and silver, and German settlers, farmers, artisans, and miners were encouraged to live in them. The fourteenth century witnessed the great prosperity of the Czechs; Where it became in the numbers of strong and rich countries.
The power of the Church grew in the fourteenth century, and its tyrannical and corrupt practices increased at that time. The Czechs demanded many reforms, and one of the most prominent advocates of these reforms was the Hussites led by Jan Hus. After battles with the church, Huss was burned to death in 1415 AD. Ultimately the Czech Church remained a moderate church, following the Hussian tradition. In 1526, the Czechs came under the rule of the Habsburg family, a powerful family that ruled a group of European countries. As a result of the conflict between the Catholic and Protestant churches, Europe entered the Thirty Years’ War and the Czechs were part of it. At the end of the war in 1648 AD, the Czechs suffered from great destruction, and a significant decrease in the population.
In the nineteenth century, the Czech economy flourished greatly, especially the manufacture of cloth and sugar. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Czechs entered into an alliance with Slovakia and established the state of Czechoslovakia in 1918, which included the historical lands of Bohemia, Moravia, and Slovakia. Czechoslovakia was the most politically stable country in Eastern Europe at the time. The country was subject to the German Nazi occupation between 1938 and 1945, and was controlled by the Soviet Union between 1948 and 1989. Czechoslovakia ended the independence of both Slovakia and the Czech Republic amicably on January 1, 1993.
- ^ a b c c “EUROPE:: CZECHIA”, CIA.
- ↑ “Bohemia”, Encyclopædia Britannica.
- ↑ “Moravia”, Encyclopædia Britannica.
- ↑ “Moravia and Silesia”, Czech Republic.
- ↑ “Czech Republic Political System”, Czech Republic.
- ^ a b c “A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC”, local histories.
- ↑ “Czechoslovakia”, Encyclopædia Britannica.
Where is the Czech Republic?