The divine command to fast the month of Ramadan came to all sane adult Muslims who are able to fast, both men and women, and it is desirable to encourage children to fast in order to accustom them to it.
وقد جاء تحديد الصَّوم اليوميّ بدايةً ونهايةً بنصِّ آيةٍ في القرآن الكريم، قال تعالى: (أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَى نِسَائِكُمْ هُنَّ لِبَاسٌ لَكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ لِبَاسٌ لَهُنَّ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتَانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنْكُمْ فَالآنَ بَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَابْتَغُوا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّى The abyss of the righteous, from the dawn, shows you from the dawn, then they will complete the fast to the night. May God’s prayers and peace be upon him by observing the suhoor because of its blessing, even with a dose of water, and it is desirable to delay it a little before the second dawn.
Iftar in Ramadan
It is absolutely forbidden to break the fast in Ramadan, except in limited cases in which Shariah has permitted breaking the fast, which are as follows:
- The patient: who is harmed by fasting because of taking medicines during the day, or who is unable to fast because of a defect in his body functions, such as a patient with diabetes, kidney failure, or other diseases in which the treating doctor prevents the patient from fasting; He breaks the fast and he has to make up the days that he did not fast after Ramadan.
- The traveler: the one who travels long distances by land, sea or air, and suffers the trouble of travelling; He may break his fast and make up what he did not break after the end of the month of Ramadan, and if he fasts while traveling, then his fast is acceptable and he does not have to do anything.
- Menstruating and postpartum women: due to menstruation or childbirth; They must break the fast, and then make up what they did not break after the end of Ramadan, and if a menstruating or postpartum woman fasts, it is not sufficient for her and she must make up after the end of the month.
- Pregnant and breast-feeding: a pregnant woman or a woman who is breast-feeding her newborn; They have several conditions:
- Those who are unable to fast: It is every Muslim who is prevented by old age or a disease from which there is no cure. He breaks the fast and does not have to make up for it, but he feeds one poor person for each day.
- Fear of harm as a result of fasting on the body of a pregnant or breastfeeding woman; She breaks the fast and makes up for what she did not break after the end of Ramadan.
- Fear of harm to the fetus in the mother’s womb as a result of the mother’s fasting, or the fear that the infant may be affected as a result of his mother’s fasting; So the mother breaks the fast and makes up for what she did not fast after the end of Ramadan, and she feeds one poor person for each day that she did not fast (the amount of food for a poor person is a kilo and a half of the food of the people of the country that is popular among them).
- Fear for the pregnant mother and her fetus together, or fear for the nursing mother and her infant together; So she breaks the fast and makes up for what she did not do after Ramadan without feeding him.
When is it permissible to break the fast in Ramadan?