History of the Sassanid Empire
The Sassanid Empire is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second empire, the family was founded by Ardashir I after the defeat of the last Parthian king (Arsacid), Artabanus IV Ardava and ended when Sasanid Shahshanshah (king of kings), Yazdegerd III (632-651) lost, a conflict that lasted 14 A year to drive out the expanding Islamic empires.
Map of the Sassanid Empire
The lands of the empire included all of what is now Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Afghanistan, the eastern parts of Turkey, and parts of Syria, Pakistan, the Caucasus and Central Asia, the Sassanids called their empire Eranshahr, “the empire of the Aryans, the Sassanid era is considered one of the most important historical periods and most influential in Iran.
The backbone of the Persian army (Spah) in the Sassanid era consisted of two types of heavy cavalry units: Clibanarii and Cataphracts, this cavalry force consisted of elite nobles who had trained since youth for military service and were supported by infantry cavalry and archers, Sassanian tactics focused on disrupting the enemy With archers, elephant warfare, and other forces, opening gaps cavalry forces can be exploited.
Unlike their Parthian predecessors, the Sassanids developed advanced siege engines, this development served the empire well in conflicts with Rome, where success hinges on the ability to capture cities and other fortified points. On the contrary, the Sassanids also developed a number of techniques to defend their own cities from The attack was the Sassanid army famous for its heavy cavalry, which was very similar to the former Parthian army, although some heavy Sassanid cavalry were equipped with spears.
Byzantine Emperor Morikius also emphasized in his sixth-century military treatise Strategists that many of the heavy Sassanid cavalry did not carry spears, relying on their arches as their primary weapon.
The amount of money involved in maintaining a warrior of the knight class required a small estate, and that knight class received it from the throne, and in turn, he was the most prominent defender of the throne in wartime.
Art in the Sassanid era
Sasanian art borrowed from ancient traditions in the Near East and Greco-Roman to express a new Iranian cultural identity, manifested especially in the monuments and prestigious objects associated with the royal court, it is difficult to determine the safe dates of many Sassanid buildings and artworks, partly due to the lack of materials from archaeological contexts Notarizing, trade, conquest, and diplomacy led to the spread of Sassanid fine arts east and west during the four centuries of Sassanid rule.
The most well-known Sassanid objects are metallic silverware made in large numbers in Iran and Mesopotamia, usually pounded in shape and then decorated with a variety of techniques, typical shapes include high-footed bowls, jugs, vases, and plates, many distinct images drawn from The Greco-Roman iconography whose importance has been adapted for Sassanid ammunition
Scenes of hunting, battles, and royal investments appear on the massive Sassanid rock carvings carved on the mountain slopes of Iran and other sites in western Asia, most of which were carved within the Sassanian province of Pars during the first 175 years of the empire, between the reign of Ardashir I (pp. 224-241) and Shapur III ( Pp. 383-388).
Iranian artists as well as European travelers brought drawings from various reliefs to Iran in the nineteenth century. Topics include the equestrian investment of Ardashir I, who receives the office ring from the Zoroastrian deity Ahura Mazda in the Rustum inscription in southern Iran.
Iranian society during the Sassanid era
In the region at that time, it was only the Byzantines who could compete with Sassanid society and civilization. The amount of scientific and intellectual exchange between the two empires attests to the competition and cooperation between these civilizational cradle.
The most striking difference between the Parthian and Sasanian society was the renewed emphasis on charismatic and centralized government, in the Sassanian theory, the ideal society was the society that could maintain stability and justice and the instrument needed for that was a powerful possession, the Sassanid society was very complex with separate systems of social organization governing many From different groups within the empire.
Historians believe that the society was divided into four groups: priests (Atorbanan in Persian: Atropanan), warriors (Arteshtaran in Persian: Artchtaran), secretaries (Dabiran in Persian: Dabiran), and commoners (Vasteryoshan-Hootkheshan) in Persian: Hutkhshan-Westrioshan, in the center The Sasanian caste system was Shahanshah, ruling all the nobles, the royal princes, the small rulers, the great angel, and the priests together had a distinct class, and were identified as Bozorgan Bazargan, or the nobility this social system seemed to be somewhat strict, overriding the Sassan caste system by the empire, It continued in the early Islamic period.
Membership in the class was based on birth, although it was possible for the exceptional individual to move to another chapter on the basis of merit, the king’s job was to make sure that each class remained within its proper limits, so that the weak, or the weak, were not oppressed. On this social balance is the essence of royal justice, and its effective function depends on the glorification of property over all other classes.
Industry and trade in the Sassanid era
Under the Sassanids, the Persian industry developed from local to urban forms, the unions were numerous, and some cities had a revolutionary proletariat, silk weaving was introduced from China, Sassanid silk was searched everywhere, and served as examples of textile art in Byzantium, China and Japan. Chinese merchants came to Iranian ports Thriving like Siraf to sell raw silk and buy carpets, jewels and lips tied Armenians, Syrians, Jews, Persia, Byzantium, and Rome in slow exchange. Good roads and bridges with good patrols allowed the state center and commercial caravans to connect Ctesiphon to all provinces and ports built in the Persian Gulf to accelerate trade with India. Sassanid merchants ranged widely and gradually overthrew the Romans from lucrative trade routes in the Indian Ocean.
The last archaeological discovery has shown an interesting fact that the Sassanids used special posters commercial posters on goods as a means of promoting their trademarks and distinguishing between different attributes.
Khosrau The Sassanid state tended towards monopolistic control of trade, where luxury goods played a much greater role in trade than those that existed until now, and great activity in building ports, caravans, bridges, and the like was linked to trade and urbanization, the Persians dominated international trade, in all From the Indian Ocean, Central Asia, and southern Russia in the time of Khosrau, although competition with the Byzantines was sometimes intense, Sassanid settlements in Oman and Yemen attested to the importance of trade with India, but the silk trade with China was mainly in the hands of the Sassanid servants and the people Iranian, and Sogdians.
The main exports of the Sassanids were silk, wool, golden fabric, carpets and rugs, leather, leather and pearls from the Persian Gulf. There were also goods in transit from China, such as paper, silk, and India, such as spices, which Sassanid customs imposed taxes and re-exported from the empire to Europe.