Sumerian language

The Sumerian language is the oldest written language in the world, first found around 3100 BC in southern Mesopotamia. The Assyrian-Babylonian language was established in 2000 BC, and continued to be used in writing until the end of the Akkadian language and the beginning of the Christian era.[1]

Writing the Sumerian language

The Sumerian language was written in cuneiform scripts, and it is considered the first language that was written in the cuneiform style, and it is likely that the development and use of the cuneiform name was in the Sumerian language, and the text manuscripts were written using schematic symbols, that is, symbols that express the idea, rather than using words or sounds. technically understood in any language.[2]

Information about the Sumerian language

The Sumerian language can be identified through the following information:[1]

  • The use of the Sumerian language was limited to the region of southern Mesopotamia, and did not extend to areas beyond the borders of these countries, and the small number of native speakers did not affect the development of the civilization of Mesopotamia and other ancient civilizations.
  • The Sumerian language was characterized by four phases and periods, namely Old Sumerian, Classical Sumerian, Neo-Sumerian, and Post-Sumerian.
  • Most of the Sumerian dialects are known, the most famous of which are the eme-gir dialect and the eme-sal dialect, which is the dialect used in hymns and incantations.
  • Many ancient civilizations such as Babylon, Assyria, and the Egyptian civilization possess official documents about its history, traditions, written and classical sources, but there are no written sources other than Mesopotamia that indicate the presence of the Sumerians in ancient times.
  • The Sumerian language preserves the root of the word, away from various grammatical changes, as the pronunciation of nouns and verbs in this language does not differ, as in the Indo-European or Semitic languages, and the sounds in the Sumerian language consist of four vowels and sixteen consonants.
  • The Sumerian language first appeared in writings on soft clay tablets, which were cut in the form of a wedge. In addition to the Akkadian language, the Sumerian language is considered the language of the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia, and this language flourished during the Bronze Age.[3]
  • The first written witness to the Sumerian language is a group of texts dating back to the Uruk IV period, most of which are administrative texts, and some are lists of words used in teaching printing.[2]
  • The writing of the Sumerian language developed in important aspects within the language in many fields, such as science, mathematics, art, and politics.[3]

the reviewer

  1. ^ AB Ignace J. Gelb (20-3-2019), “Sumerian language”, www.britannica.com, Retrieved 5-8-2019. Edited.
  2. ^ AP Jason Moser (11-7-2015), “Sumerian Language”, www.ancient.eu, Retrieved 5-8-2019. Edited.
  3. ^ AP Clara Moskowitz (28-12-2010), “Q&A: Dead Languages ​​Reveal a Lost World”, www.livescience.com, Retrieved 5-8-2019. Edited.

What is the oldest written language in history?

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