River: It is a large natural stream of flowing water, and there are rivers on every continent and on almost every type of land, and the length of the river may be only one kilometer, or it may extend over a large area of ​​the continent. The Nile River in Africa is the longest river in the world with a length ranging between 5,499 km and 6,690 km, and the Amazon River in South America is the second longest river in the world with a length between 6,259 km and 6,800 km, and although the Nile River is longer than the Amazon River, the The latter carries more water than any other river on Earth, with nearly one-fifth of the fresh water entering the oceans coming from the Amazon.[1]

The Nile River

The Nile River: The name of the Nile is derived from the Greek word “nilos” which means valley or river valley. The Nile River is the longest river in the world, with a length of approximately 6,650 km. It rises to the south of the equator, and flows north through northeastern Africa to the Mediterranean Sea, which is bounded on the north by it, bordered on the east by the Red Sea hills and the Ethiopian plateau, and on the south by the highlands in East Africa, and on the west by Chad and the Congo Basin. The Nile River is in ten countries: Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Uganda, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Sudan, and the cultivated part of Egypt. The Nile River basin, which covers about a tenth of the area of ​​the African continent, was the stage for the development of advanced civilizations in the ancient world, where the people who were among the first to develop the arts of agriculture and the use of the plow resided on the banks of the river.[2]

The path of the Nile River

The Nile River consists of two tributaries: the White Nile, which stems from Lake Victoria, and the Blue Nile, which stems from Lake Tana in Ethiopia. The following is an explanation of the course of each of them:[3]

  • The White Nile: The White Nile feeds the Nile River with a small percentage of water compared to the Blue Nile; Because of the evaporation of water in the dams area, the Luveronza River in Burundi is the farthest source of the Nile water located in the south, and it is one of the tributaries of the Kagera River, which flows into Lake Victoria on the borders of Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya, which is considered the third of the Great Lakes. In the world and the second largest fresh lake in the world, where it is the main source of the water of the White Nile, after that the river passes from Lake Kyoga and then to Lake (Albert), and reaches the Falls (Fula) in South Sudan at the city of Nimoli, then known as (Bahr al-Jabal) ), then the river enters the area of ​​dense swamps, to branch from the Sea of ​​Giraffes, then connects to Bahr al-Ghazal, then to the Sobat River, which originates from the Abyssinian plateau, then resumes its course towards the north, where it is known as the (White Nile) and continues on its path until it passes the capital Sudanese Khartoum.
  • The Blue Nile: The Blue Nile constitutes 85% of the waters feeding the Nile, and it originates from Lake Tana in the Ethiopian highlands. The Blue Nile also meets the Rahad and Dinder rivers within the territory of Sudan, after which it continues on its path until it meets the White Nile in the Muqrin region. In Khartoum, and their confluence at that time is called the Nile, where it crosses the border between Egypt and Sudan and continues until it reaches Lake Nasser, and then the river branches into two branches: Damietta Branch in the east, and Rashid Branch in the west, and each of the two branches eventually drains into the Mediterranean Sea.

The economic importance of the Nile River

The economic importance of the Nile River lies in the following:[4]

  • Irrigation: The Nile River water helps irrigate crops; Because of the slope of the land from south to north, the slope of the land being about 5 inches per mile, as well as a slightly greater slope from the river bank to the desert on both sides, the use of the Nile for irrigation first appeared when seeds were sown in the remaining mud after it had subsided. The annual flood waters, and over time irrigation systems were developed by dividing the fields in the flat floodplains in the banks into a series of large basins of varying sizes, and because of the annual flooding, the water basins were flooded, allowing the water to remain in the fields for up to six weeks. The water drains when the river level drops, and as a result a thin sliver of rich silt forms on the land every year, where autumn and winter crops are grown in the waterlogged soil.
  • Building Dams and Reservoirs: In 1843 AD, it was decided to build a series of dams across the Nile in the river delta region (12 miles downstream from Cairo), in order to obtain a higher water level to supply irrigation canals and regulate movement, and this project was considered a sign of the beginning of irrigation In the Nile Valley, the Assiut Dam was built, which is located more than 200 miles from Cairo, and the first dam was built in the Aswan region between 1899 and 1902, which was expanded twice: the first expansion between 1908 and 1911, and the second was between 1929 and 1934. This led to raising the water level and increasing the dam’s capacity. The dam is also equipped with a hydroelectric power plant with an installed power of more than 345 megawatts.
  • Mobility: The Nile River is a vital waterway for transporting people and goods. Navigation takes place on the Egyptian side by sailing ships and shallow river steamers in the far south of Aswan and thousands of small boats in the Nile and waterways in the Delta region, and on the side of Sudan and South Suwan, the steam service extends on the Nile and its tributaries for about 2,400 miles, but the river is navigable only in three regions of Sudan due to the presence of white waters in the north of Khartoum.

the reviewer

  1. ↑ “river”, www.nationalgeographic.org, Retrieved 11-4-2018. Edited.
  2. ↑ “Nile River RIVER, AFRICA”, www.britannica.com, Retrieved 4-11-2018. Edited.
  3. ↑ “Nile River”, www.aljazeera.net, accessed on 4-11-2018. act.
  4. ↑ “Economy”, www.britannica.com, Retrieved 4-11-2018. Edited.

What is the longest river in the world

Writing – on the date : – Last updated: 2022-05-11 19:21:01