The concept of geography

Geography deals with the study and analysis of various natural and human phenomena. and changes in space and time.[1]

The birth of geography

The following points show the contributions of some scientists and geographers who are credited with the emergence and development of geography:[2]

  • Eratosthenes: (276 BC-196 BC): He is a Greek researcher who was able to estimate the circumference of the Earth using the angles of the shadows.
  • Ptolemy (90 AD – 170 AD): Ptolemy studied and wrote astronomy and geometry. He also devised the system of longitude and latitude for determining locations, not to mention a large number of drawings and maps that were considered a basic reference for geographers in the Renaissance.
  • Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859 AD): known as the father of modern geography, he was an explorer, scientist and traveler. He created hundreds of maps drawn in a very detailed and accurate manner, some of these maps showing the locations of thermally equal locations, and he summarized his deep knowledge of humans and the earth, in a book called (Cosmos) ( In English: Kosmos), which is classified as one of the most important geographical works of the Renaissance.

Geography topics

The following points address the five topics that formed the main pillars on which the science of geography was based:[3]

  • Locations: Geography can answer the question of where, by giving absolute coordinates of the place in relation to the longitude and latitude of the globe, or by taking another place as its reference point.
  • Places: The places here mean the characteristics of the sites that form their identity and uniqueness. These characteristics are represented by natural phenomena such as climate, terrain and water, in addition to the human manifestations of the place such as its religious, urban and linguistic patterns.
  • Joint interaction: Geography deals with the study of the interrelationship between man and the environment. The environment constitutes a source of resources that man relies on to secure his basic needs that guarantee his survival and development, which motivates him to change in it if possible, to achieve the maximum possible benefit from its resources. He is forced to find ways to adapt to it.
  • Areas: An area is a geographical unit that expresses the sum of the common human and natural characteristics of a site, separated from the others by certain borders.
  • Movement: The movement deals with the issues of transportation and transportation in addition to migration, trade, and the resulting civilizational interactions.

the reviewer

  1. ↑ “GEOGRAPHY”,page 1,, Retrieved 2018-8-27. Edited.
  2. ↑ Xanthe Webb Aintablian (2018-8-21), “Geography as a Science”,, Retrieved 2018-8-27. Edited.
  3. ↑ “The Five Themes of Geography”,, Retrieved 2018-8-27. Edited.

What is the concept of geography?

Writing – on the date : – Last updated: 2022-05-14 18:45:01