an introduction

Philosophy is considered one of the prominent sciences since ancient times, as it is based on thinking and wisdom in a sophisticated philosophical style, which leads us to the truth of things through a realistic philosophy. It is a collective (philosophy), and since the meanings of the parts are love and wisdom, as a complete meaning it means love of wisdom; That is why the philosopher has become a lover of wisdom, and by wisdom he means: the integrated realization of the truth, the sublime mental knowledge, and the intellectual contemplation to address all the problems that you may encounter in life, and to be solved and explained in the best case.

Philosophy

Philosophers of the ages did not meet to develop a single and fixed definition or concept of philosophy, as they differed on it, and thus the meanings of philosophy multiplied and definitions increased according to philosophical scholars. In every era, it is the habit of the philosopher to study all the different and scattered facts and then collect them, and then strip them of the material formula to link them to a logical sequence with a special arrangement in it, to explain the phenomena with rational, consistent and homogeneous thinking, and every philosopher has become his own opinion in the interpretation of any phenomenon, according to His mentality with evidence and proofs; Therefore, we have not obtained for this day a specific definition and concept of philosophy other than that it is the love of wisdom, and is based on the interpretation of phenomena from one philosopher to another according to the era in which he is, and the evidence and proofs he has.

Thinking style and the status of philosophical style

Of course, we know that God Almighty has distinguished man from the rest of his creation by reason, and the mind translates ideas and methods that ideas follow. The only human being is able to think in a behavior with organized awareness with a method that follows the method in a variety, and thinking is a set of high-end intellectual processes that result in the mind The human being is the direction of an issue, issue or problem, while style is the different way of expressing what is inside the human being of thought and thinking, and thinking differs from one person to another, and the method used for thinking is also different from one person to another, and the method used in thinking differs from one environment to another, and from one person to another. One age to another, and the intellectual style of man is divided into four main types, namely:

  • The superstitious or primitive position and its method: The primitive method of explaining any phenomenon that occurs in that era was very bad, as he was looking at the phenomenon in a naive and unconscious manner, so the interpretations differed due to his mentality and immaturity, so his explanation was very limited, and it is not easy to explain The occurrence of the phenomenon and knowing the real reason behind its occurrence, for example, it was in the past that natural phenomena were linked to the existence of more than one god to fabricate these phenomena, and to solve this problem they used to offer sacrifices to them, believing that they would solve the problem.
  • Religious position and style: At that time, man viewed the phenomenon from a religious point of view, as a phenomenon that transcends human capabilities. The occurrence of phenomena was linked to the ability of God, and that there is a God whose capabilities exceed the capabilities of humans, and he does those phenomena. For example, for the phenomenon of thunder and lightning, it was They associate it with unlimited divine abilities, in different heavenly religions, and they were seeking to explain the phenomenon and the fact of its occurrence according to the conviction of the existence of divine abilities stronger than anything.
  • The philosophical position and its method: If we also look at the same previous phenomenon, the phenomenon of thunder and lightning, we will find that philosophers were distinguished from others in explaining the phenomenon, through their mental and intellectual meditation, which indicates skill in explaining the phenomenon with logical philosophical thinking, analyzing it in a consistent manner, and linking The occurrence of this phenomenon in other phenomena in the universe, as they linked the partial phenomena to each other, and did not stop at the limit of a specific phenomenon, so it was extended to explain the phenomena of existence as a whole, so the philosophers looked at the issue in a holistic view, pushing them to know the reasons behind the various phenomena, so he knew this The method is philosophical, as the interpretation of the phenomenon differed from one philosopher to another; Because of the difference in mentality and age.
  • The scientific position and its method: Suppose the same phenomenon that we mentioned lightning and terror, the scientific interpretation of this phenomenon is completely different from the previous positions, here the scientist is researching the direct causes of the occurrence of the phenomenon, and does not look beyond the phenomenon, as he uses abstract mental meditation, and is used to detect the phenomenon of the senses And various devices, here the many experiments are based on the interpretation of the phenomenon, and to arrive at a specific law behind its occurrence.

The scientist explains the occurrence of the phenomenon, by discharging electric charges that are not homogeneous with each other, between the lower and upper part of the clouds, and it results in light, which is lightning, and results in a sound, which is thunder, and therefore the scientific results that resulted from this discovery contribute to the human control of the phenomenon from By avoiding electric lightning strikes. We conclude from all these situations that the superstitious method is based on illogical primitivism, and the religious method is based on linking phenomena to the power of God Almighty, while the philosophical method is a mental contemplation that includes all phenomena in the universe, while the scientific method is based on empirical science The perceptual specialist is the phenomenon only, without going back beyond the event.

A summary of the historical eras of philosophy

The historical eras in which philosophy passed and its development are the same as the general historical eras, and are divided into five eras, namely:

  • The ancient eastern era: the beginning of the ancient era before Christ, that is, thousands of years before our era, and its time period continued to the middle of the seventh century BC, and this era represented the beginning of the human conscience, as well as the emergence of his moral thought and religious wisdom in the ancient civilizations located in Babylon Assyria and Egypt, as well as in China, India and Persia, and among the most prominent scholars of this era: “Buddha, Akhenaten, Confucius, Zoroaster, and many others.”
  • The ancient Greek era: the beginning of this era from the second middle of the seventh century BC, and extended to the beginning of the fifth century BC, and here philosophy witnessed maturity at the hands of both Plato, Socrates and Aristotle, and then returned to decline at the end of the era, and the flame of Greek civilization was extinguished.
  • The Middle Ages (Christian and Islamic): The philosophy of Christianity appeared in the fifth century AD, and continued around the middle of the fifteenth century, and the essence of this philosophy was its extension of the philosopher Plato and Aristotle to the Greek civilization, but it only took the Christian dress. As for Islamic philosophy, this philosophy appeared gradually since Its emergence and until the migration that began in 622 AD, Muslims began to build their own civilization, and it continued until the twelfth century AD, and philosophy took an Islamic religious character.
  • Modern Era: Philosophy began to appear in Europe and the Western world, and this began since the middle of the fifteenth century AD, that is, with the beginning of the European Renaissance, and philosophy was characterized by development in a new form, and among the most important philosophers of this era: “The French Rikat, and the English Bacon”, and philosophy extended Here until the end of the nineteenth century.
  • The present era, or the so-called twentieth century: This era began with the beginning of the twentieth century in its early days, and continued to our present and still, and here the philosophical doctrines developed and multiplied, and varied clearly and remarkably from the ages that preceded it, and the current philosophical doctrines are called contemporary philosophy, or the philosophy of the twentieth century .

What is philosophy?

writing – on the date : – Last updated: 2022-06-19 09:51:01