Paper is the basic material used in written communication, as it is an indispensable part of daily life, as the use of paper is not limited to that, but is used in packaging, insulation, packaging as well, and other various uses, and paper is a flexible network consisting of fibers connected, and compressed, as these fibers come from several sources, including cloth rags, cellulose fibers found in plants and trees,[1] Half of these fibers are provided today from wood harvested for this purpose, while the other half is provided from several sources, including: wood fibers taken from sawmills, newspapers, recycled cloth, and some plant materials.[1]

It is worth noting that there are types of trees that are more suitable for paper manufacturing than others, such as coniferous trees, as the cellulose fibers in the pulp of these trees are long; Which constitutes stronger paper after its manufacture, in addition to the fact that there are plants other than trees that are used in the paper industry due to the lack of trees in areas where there are no large forests, including: bamboo, straw, and sugar cane, and with the increase in demand for paper, and the development of mechanisms Manufacture It has become possible to use any kind of tree in the manufacture of paper.[1]

ancient paper industry

The paper industry began since ancient times, as paper was invented in China by the Chinese Tsai Lun, and the first paper was made of eroded plant fibers, and the paper industry continued to spread and develop until it reached what it is now,[2] In the past, the manufacture of leaves was to remove the fibrous layers in the stem of the plant, and put them next to each other perpendicular to another group of layers that were arranged in the same way, all moistened, pressed, and dried, until the plant sap (English: Gluelike) then stuck it to each other, acting as a natural adhesive.[3]

New paper industry

The world continued to make paper manually, until the first paper-making machine was invented by Louis Robert, which facilitated the process of making paper, and this machine works through two main stages: processing raw materials, and making paper plate in the Fourdrinier machine.[4] It summarizes how it works as follows:

  • Raw material processing stage: This stage includes converting wood chips into pulp, where the pulp is the raw material for making paper, which is manufactured in two ways:[5]
  • The stage of making paper plate in the Fordinaire machine: At this stage, the fibers are formed to produce different types of paper, where the pulp flows to the Fordinaire machine, to then undergo several processes that result in the formation of a paper plate of fibers, which are subjected to suction, and drying to reduce moisture in it, followed by this Calendering, which aims to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of the paper, and finally the manufactured paper pages are rolled into large rolls for shipment.[4]
  • Chemical pulping: This method is the most efficient way to produce high-quality paper, where wood pieces are cooked with chemicals, to remove lignin, to turn at a later stage into fibers that are washed and bleached until they reach their final shape.
  • Mechanical pulping: This method is based on grinding the wooden pieces under a stream of water, where the bark is separated from the wooden pieces, then these pieces are cut into smaller pieces before turning into fibers. This stage also includes paper bleaching, as paper bleaching is important for writing purposes, as the dark lignin color is removed by bleaching the pulp using oxygen bleaching techniques, in addition to refining, beating, sizing, and coloring the fibers that take place at this stage as well.[4]

Manufactured paper properties

Physical and mechanical properties play a major role in determining the quality of manufactured paper, and among the mechanical properties that determine this are tensile strength, compressive strength, bending, and stiffness. As for transparency, brightness, measurement of light that passes through the paper, and other physical properties that affect the quality of paper. Overall printing, eg the surface of a paper made for printing purposes must be smooth enough to properly transfer ink.[4]

paper recycling

Recycling helps reduce the depletion of the earth’s natural resources, because of its impact on reducing pollution by saving the costs of manufacturing new materials, in addition to reducing the percentage of pollutants emitted by factories in the air as a result, the process of recycling paper, for example, reduces pollution air by 73%, and also reduce water pollution by 35%, according to a study conducted by the University of Central Oklahoma.[6] However, this recycling process requires that the paper be clean, and free of any other contaminants such as food, plastic, metals, and other contaminants that make recycling difficult; Where the paper to be recycled is delivered to the laboratory to be rolled, collected by machines, then sorted according to certain classifications, stored, and then processed and recycled as previously. But if the paper is contaminated, it is burned, or turned into compost, without being used in the recycling process.[7] Paper is an easy material to recycle; It does not need intense heat to melt it and convert it into a new form, unlike plastic and metal, but that does not mean that it does not need energy and water to complete the recycling process, and it is worth noting that paper cannot be recycled many times, as The small fibers stick together and become very small, due to repeated processing, which prompts factories to add some new pulp to each batch of recycled paper to make it stronger, and with all this the materials used to make paper are still new raw materials, as two-thirds of what we use to make paper It comes from trees.[8]

the reviewer

  1. ^ a b t Lawrence H. Berlow (29-5-2019), “Paper”,, Retrieved 31-5-2019. Edited.
  2. ↑ Neathery Batsell Fuller (2002-7), “A Brief History Of Paper”,, Retrieved 31-5-2019. Edited.
  3. ↑ Kenneth W. Britt, “Papermaking”,, Retrieved 31-5-2019. Edited.
  4. ^ a b c Salim Hiziroglu (7-2006), “Basics of Paper Manufacturing”,, Retrieved 31-5-2019. Edited.
  5. ↑ “How is paper made?”,, Retrieved 31-5-2019. Edited.
  6. ↑ Laurie Brenner (7-5-2018), “How Can Recycling Help Prevent Pollution?”,, Retrieved 31-5-2019. Edited.
  7. ↑ Senthil Kumar, “How is Paper Recycled?”,, Retrieved 31-5-2019. Edited.
  8. ↑ Katherine Harmon (27-5-2011), “Recycle! Make Old Paper New”,, Retrieved 15-6-2019. Edited.

What is paper made of?

Writing – on the date : – Last updated: 2022-05-11 23:06:01