high milk hormone

The milk hormone is known as prolactin, as this hormone mainly prepares the breasts during pregnancy, stimulates the production of milk, and has a number of other functions, and in fact this hormone is secreted from the anterior pituitary gland located in the brain, The secretion of this hormone is controlled by estrogen, which in turn increases the secretion of prolactin, and dopamine, which inhibits its secretion. It is considered normal and required during pregnancy and lactation, but it may occur in other cases, which is considered a health problem, and it should be noted that the high level of prolactin may affect men and women.[1][2]

Signs of high prolactin

In some cases, visual problems or headaches may be caused by the formation of a benign tumor in the pituitary gland, or what is known as a prolactinoma; The first signs of elevated prolactin in both affected men and women.[2]

Marks in women

Symptoms of high milk hormone in women differ from one to another, and the most important of these symptoms that may appear when the increase in milk hormone is in a period other than pregnancy and lactation are the following:[2]

  • Infertility.
  • Galactorrhea.
  • Irregular menstruation, or infrequent menstruation.
  • Amenorrhea.
  • breast pain
  • Loss of sexual desire.
  • Vaginal dryness.

Marks in men

Among the most common symptoms and signs that appear when high milk hormone in men are as follows:[2]

  • Gynecomastia.
  • milk secretion.
  • Infertility.
  • Loss of sexual desire.
  • Erectile dysfunction.
  • Decreased body hair and muscle mass.[3]

Reasons for high prolactin

In fact, prolactinoma is one of the most important reasons for suffering from high milk hormone, and the tumor is usually benign, and other causes are the following:[2][3]

  • Hypothyroidism.
  • Chest wall injuries, or some health problems that affect the chest wall, such as: shingles.
  • Cirrhosis of the liver.
  • Chronic kidney disease.
  • Other diseases or tumors that affect the pituitary gland, or radiotherapy for tumors of the pituitary gland or tumors close to it.
  • Use of certain medications such as:
  • antihypertensive drugs; Such as calcium-channel blockers and methyldopa.
  • antidepressant medication; Like tricyclic antidepressants.
  • Antipsychotics; such as risperidone.
  • Estrogen.
  • Medications for vomiting and nausea, such as metoclopramide.
  • Pain-relieving medications, such as opiates.
  • heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease medications; Such as histamine 2 antagonist.

Treating high prolactin

  • Vitamins: such as vitamin E; which protects against high prolactin, and vitamin B6; Which can reduce the production of prolactin.
  • Medications: Some medications reduce the production of prolactin and shrink a pituitary gland tumor, such as bromocriptine and cabergoline.
  • Surgery: Surgery is usually resorted to if the patient does not respond to medications, or if the tumor affects the eyesight; Where the doctor removes the tumor completely.
  • Radiation therapy: It is rare to resort to this treatment, but it can be used in the absence of response to medications and surgery; The radiation reduces the size of the tumor.
  • Treatment depending on the cause: If the cause of the high prolactin hormone is hypothyroidism, the treatment is by taking a synthetic alternative to the thyroid hormone, and if there is a drug that causes this rise, then the use of this drug is stopped or replaced with another drug.
  • Other treatments: such as reducing stress, and making some changes in diet.

Milk hormone test

When conducting a milk hormone test, a small sample of blood is drawn, preferably 3-4 hours after waking up in the morning, and then analyzed in the laboratory to determine the level of the hormone in the blood. Usually, a person needs to wait for several days before the result appears, and it is considered The ratio of the hormone is normal if it is between 2-18 ng/ml in men, as for women, the normal ratio ranges between 2-29 ng/ml, and for pregnant women, the normal ratios range between 10-209 ng/ml.[4][5]

But if the reading is higher than these values, this does not necessarily mean a disease or a tumor; This hormone may rise after eating, stress, or doing strenuous activities, or in the event of low blood sugar, or as a result of eating some herbs such as fennel, fenugreek, and red clover, and it can be said that if the reading is a thousand times higher than the upper limit number Normally, this may indicate that the patient suffers from a prolactinoma, when the doctor requests an MRI, in order to detect the presence of a brain tumor near the pituitary gland.[4][5]

Complications of prolactinoma

There are a number of complications that may occur if the cause of the high milk hormone is a prolactinoma, including:[6]

  • Vision loss: If the patient does not undergo treatment, this may lead to the tumor growing further, causing pressure on the optic nerve.
  • Osteoporosis: An increase in the level of the hormone prolactin leads to a decrease in the production of estrogen and testosterone, which causes a decrease in bone density and an increased risk of osteoporosis.
  • Pregnancy complications: Estrogen production increases during pregnancy, and when a pregnant woman suffers from prolactinoma, estrogen will contribute to an increase in the growth of this tumor, leading to the emergence of some signs and symptoms such as headaches and vision loss. Prolactinoma, in order to adjust treatment and monitor her health status.
  • Hypopituitarism: A large prolactinoma may cause pressure on the pituitary gland, leading to an imbalance in the functions of other hormones that control the pituitary gland, and consequently, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and growth hormone deficiency. .

the reviewer

  1. ↑ “What does Prolactin do?”, www.hormone.org, 11-2-2018. Edited.
  2. ^ a b c c c h “What Is Hyperprolactinemia”, www.verywellhealth.com, 11-2-2018. Edited.
  3. ^ ABC “Hyperprolactinemia”, www.hormone.org, 11-2-2018. Edited.
  4. ^ ABC “Prolactin Level Test”, www.healthline.com, 11-2-2018. Edited.
  5. ^ AB “What is a Prolactin Test?”, www.webmd.com, Retrieved 11-2-2018. Edited.
  6. ↑ “Prolactinoma”, www.mayoclinic.org, 11-2-2018. Edited.

What are the signs of prolactin?

Writing – on the date : – Last updated: 2022-05-13 10:00:01