Tayammum is defined linguistically as the intent and orientation towards something, but according to Islamic law, it is wiping the face and hands with a clean surface with the intention of purification. When the time for prayer begins, use the soil for purification.
The wisdom of the legality of tayammum
The wisdom of the legality of tayammum is to facilitate the nation of Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, and to ward off the harm that may happen to a Muslim in the case of using water, such as the exacerbation and severity of diseases and the inability to cure them, or in cases of water interruption and non-existence, such as travel and loss, and that is due to the permanence of the slave’s connection with his Lord and the non-interruption of prayer when water interruption.
Conditions for the validity of tayammum
- The entry of the time of prayer: The scholars unanimously agreed that tayammum is valid in the event that the time for prayer begins and there is a need for tayammum.
- Lack of water: God Almighty said: (So you will not find water, then perform tayammum) [النساء: 43].
- Asking for water and searching for it: A condition for tayammum according to the doctrine of Ahmed bin Hanbal and Al-Shafi’i is to ask for water and search for it.
- Inability to use water: This is due to the possibility of contracting diseases, or the increase in disease and organ damage when using water, or the fear of delaying recovery for some diseases, and in cases of very severe cold.
How to do tayammum
The Messenger Muhammad, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, explained how to do tayammum as he said to Ammar bin Yasir in the two Sahihs: (It was sufficient for you to say this with your hands, then hit the ground with his hands one blow, then wipe the left over the right, the back of his hands, and his face) [صحيح]If a person is in a state of travel or is unable to use water, he can perform tayammum by hitting his palms in the dirt in one blow, then blowing them to get rid of the dirt stuck on them and wiping his face and hands.
He names a person before tayammum as he does before ablution, and after wiping his face and hands he says: I bear witness that there is no god but God alone who has no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger, O God, make me one of those who repent and make me one of those who purify themselves, as he does after completing ablution with water.
What are the conditions for the validity of tayammum?