The history of watchmaking
Humans have been interested in knowing the time of day since antiquity; Where they used the direction of the shadows made by the sun’s rays when they fall on the vertical or inclined poles on the surface of the earth, and this method determines the time in an approximate and inaccurate way; So humans invented sand and water clocks that work by flowing water or sand between two bowls, and the time is known in them by determining the height of the water surface or the sand remaining in the bowl at some point, and with the increased interest in knowing the time more accurately, mechanical clocks appeared in 829 AD, but These watches have not reached the degree of accuracy that can be relied upon in determining the time.
With the passage of time, the watch industry began to develop greatly, as pendulum watches were made, and watches that contain the hairspring, which has the feature of fixing the duration of the oscillation, and the development of the watch industry continued to the present time. Despite the great progress made in the watch industry, it never reached the exact time; Because of the influence of pressure and temperature factors on the length of the pendulum or the spring, and this leads to a change in the period of its oscillation in which time is measured. It has been found that the only clock that cannot be mistaken in measuring time is the Earth; The time during which one revolution rotates around itself is absolutely fixed.
The method of making watches varies with different types, and the following is information about the manufacture of the different types of watches:
- The sundial: It is believed that the Chinese were the ones who invented this clock, and it appeared in the Pharaonic civilization and the Greek civilization took it from them and was used as a sundial. Or horizontal to the ground, but in fact, the sundial cannot be used at night and when there is no sun, and the time you measure is not the same on all days; Because the length of days varies according to the seasons.
- Water clock: Due to the ineffectiveness of the sundial in the absence of sunlight, the ancient Egyptians and Greeks invented a water clock that works at night and day and in the absence of sunlight. Determine the time when the amount of water in the pot runs out. In fact, the water clock was not accurate in telling the time; Because the pressure of the liquid in the container varies according to the difference in the water level in the container, and the water may be subjected to freezing when temperatures drop.
- Hourglass or glass: It is a machine that works by emptying sand from one bottle to another in a period of time of an hour, so it was called an hour, and the Egyptians invented it.
- Pendulum clock: It is a wooden clock that is hung on the wall and is characterized by its heavy weight, and it mainly contains a short pendulum that represents a reliable measure of time, so that the length of the pendulum is relied upon to measure the entire time period. The first pendulum clock was made by the Dutch astronomer and physicist Christian Huygens in 1656 AD, who contributed to the start of the practical application of the manufacture of pendulum clocks and considered them to be a timekeeper, benefiting from Galileo’s observations in 1581 AD about the property of timekeeping in the pendulum.
- Wristwatches: The first small portable watch was made in the sixteenth century by a German locksmith named Peter Henlen. This watch was known as the Nuremberg Egg, as it was round in shape. After more than ten years of research and study, Heinlein was able to invent a small spring called the mainspring, which is a spring that provides the watch with the energy needed to operate it. Later, they were also able to add a hand to indicate the seconds, and with the passage of time, the need arose to make a watch that suits women; Therefore, a small watch was invented to be worn on the wrist known as the wristwatch, and in wars, soldiers found that they needed a wrist watch instead of the ones they put in their pockets to make it easier for them to tell the time, so the wrist watch at that time was worn by men and women.
The most famous watches around the world
Due to the importance of knowing the time and for tourist purposes, giant clocks have been built that represent a masterpiece, and these clocks include:
- The famous Big Ben: It is one of the greatest tourist attractions in London. It was built on a giant tower in the nineteenth century. It was named after the one who supervised the construction of the clock tower; British Labor Secretary Sir Benjamin Hall, whose nickname is Big Ben; It means the big son, so the name of this watch was an acronym for his name. A giant bell weighing nearly 16 tons was designed for the watch, which emits a loud sound that can be easily heard when a certain time elapses. In the late twentieth century, the famous watch was subjected to a technical failure; Due to the fall of a number of iron bars on it, but it was soon repaired to return to work again, and after a period of time this watch almost broke down again, and the reason this time is the fall of one of the watch’s drums due to the corrosion of the metal that carries it, and this caused the watch to stop working for 22 day, as for the bells, they remained suspended for 9 months.
- Al-Haram Al-Makki Clock: It is the largest clock built in the world. This clock is located in Mecca, and directly overlooks the courtyards of the Great Mosque of Mecca. It was built by order of King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz in 2010 AD, and its height is 400m above ground level, while its diameter is Its frontage is 40 m, as it can be seen from a distance of more than eight kilometers.
- ^ AB Dr. Abdel Hamid Samaja, Astronomy and Life, Arab Republic of Egypt: The Egyptian House of Books, Time Measurement and Life Affairs. act.
- ↑ Osama Zaid and Heba Al-Sayadi, The Most Important Inventions and Discoveries in the History of Humanity, The Hour. act.
- ↑ Jonathan D. Betts, “Clock”, www.britannica.com, Retrieved 25-6-2018. Edited.
- ↑ Paul Kobasa, Encyclopedia of Inventions and Discoveries – Personal Tools: Inventions and Discoveries…, Saudi Arabia: Obeikan, pp. 20-21. act.
- ↑ Abdullah Abu Alam, Riyadh of Knowledge, p.: 74-76. act.