urine catheterization

Urinary catheter can be defined as one of the medical equipment used to facilitate the exit of urine from the body, and to control the process of urination, by inserting a special tube through the urethra to the bladder to work on transporting urine from the bladder out of the body, and there are several types and sizes Different types of urinary catheters, the appropriate type and duration of use are selected by the doctor according to the patient’s condition. There are many cases and health problems that may require the use of a urinary catheter, including the following:[1][2]

  • Urinary incontinence: Urinary incontinence is the loss of control over the process of urination, or suffering from urinary leakage.
  • Surgical procedure: Some surgical operations in the urinary system or surrounding areas may require the use of a urinary catheter, such as operations that may be performed in the prostate gland, or in the genitals.
  • Urinary retention: The inability to empty the bladder normally.
  • Other health problems: such as suffering from paralysis, multiple sclerosis, dementia, and spinal injuries.

Types of urinary catheterization

There are several different types of urine catheterization, and the following is a list of some of them:

intermittent catheterization

Intermittent catheters are the most recommended type of urinary catheter, which is a thin, flexible tube, which is temporarily inserted through the urethra to the bladder to work on emptying urine, and upon completion of emptying urine, the catheter is removed and disposed of, and the process is repeated several times A new catheter is used every day, and this type of catheter is often used by the injured person after learning the correct way to use it, and it should be noted that often a lubricant is placed on the catheter to facilitate its entry through the urethra and reduce any feeling of discomfort, and it can also be Emptying the urine into a specially designed container or directly into the toilet.[3][4]

Intermittent catheterization is one of the effective types of catheters that helps to empty urine and control the process of emptying urine in the event of suffering from a health problem that affects this process, and it also helps to improve the state of urinary incontinence in some infected people, and makes infection of one of the types of urinary tract infection. Urinary tract infection caused by the retention of urine in the bladder is less, and the daily life of the affected person is improved, and it is worth noting the ease of using intermittent catheters, in most cases the person is able to place the catheter without the need for help, but in the case of suffering from one Health problems that affect a person’s physical ability, he may need the help of another person to use intermittent catheters,[5] There are several different types of intermittent catheters, including the following:[6]

  • The most common type of intermittent catheter is the non-coated intermittent catheter. This type of catheter does not contain lubricant, so an external lubricating gel must be applied to the catheter before use, due to the elasticity of the rubber used in the manufacture This type of catheter may be difficult for some people to use, and it should be noted that non-coated, intermittent catheters made of latex may not be suitable for people with a type of latex allergy.
  • Coated Intermittent Catheter: The use of a Coated Intermittent Catheter helps to facilitate the insertion of the catheter through the urethra, and reduce the chance of injury to the urethra, in addition to reducing the risk of urinary tract infection as a result of the use of the catheter, and there are two types of intermittent catheters We explain them in the following:
  • Hydrophilic Coated Catheter: This type of catheter contains a polymer coating that surrounds the surface of the catheter and works to facilitate its entry and prevent damage to the urethra by reducing friction between the catheter surface and the inside of the urethra In a large percent.
  • Closed Systems Catheter: This type of catheter contains a water-based lubricant gel and some antibacterial agents, as well as a special container for collecting urine after it has left the bladder.

external catheter

External catheters are used for men who do not suffer from urinary obstruction or urinary retention, but who suffer from incontinence or from a severe functional or mental disorder such as dementia. The principle of external catheters is based on the use of a device similar to a condom. Condom) surrounds the entire penis of a man and works to collect urine and prevent it from leaking out. days.[4][7]

The external catheter is characterized by providing greater comfort to the affected person because there is no need to insert a tube through the urethra, and the risk of urinary tract infection is lower, and if one of the types that does not need daily replacement is used, the risk of skin irritation decreases in the affected person also in the surrounding area Catheterization, and it should be noted that the external catheter is mostly used by men only, but there are some types that may be used in rare cases in women’s health centers due to the inefficiency of this type of catheter in collecting urine effectively in women, and because of the high Risk of irritation and damage to the skin and vaginal mucosa.[4][7]

stable catheters

The principle of indwelling catheters is similar to the principle of intermittent catheters, except that in the case of a stable catheter, a tube is attached to the bladder and left for several days or weeks unchanged. The catheter tube contains a deflated balloon that the doctor fills with sterile water to swell and prevent the tube from exiting. This tube is usually attached to a package or bag for emptying, which may be tied to the inner thigh area or fixed at the lowest level of the bladder, and it must be emptied before it is filled several times a day every 2-4 hours, and the person needs to exchange a bag or package Emptying twice a day, and using a larger empty bag at night while sleeping. It should be noted that there is another type of stable catheter in which the tube is equipped with a valve that is closed to allow urine to collect within the bladder, and then the valve is opened every period to empty the urine into the toilet,[4] There are two types of stable catheters, which we describe in the following:[8][9]

  • Foley catheter: In this type of catheter, the doctor inserts a sterile tube into the bladder through the urethra to empty the urine. The doctor may ask the person to push, or take a deep breath while the tube is inserted to facilitate its passage, and after the tube reaches the bladder, it is fixed by blowing a balloon at the front of the tube to prevent its exit, and attaching the tube to a special package for emptying at the end.
  • Suprapubic catheter: In some cases, a catheter that passes through the urethra cannot be used, where the doctor makes a hole below the navel and above the pubic bone, so that the catheter tube is connected directly to the bladder Without passing through the urethra, and this type of catheter is used specifically and not others for several reasons such as suffering from damage or sensitivity in the urethra, or in order to reduce the risk of infection, or because of a previous surgical operation in one of the parts of the urinary system.

Choosing the right type of catheter

The doctor’s decision to choose the appropriate type of catheter depends on many different factors, such as the patient’s health condition, the duration of use of the catheter, and the appropriate type of lifestyle for the affected person. Below are some of the considerations that are referred to to determine the appropriate type of catheter:[10]

  • Materials involved in catheter manufacturing: The appropriate materials are selected based on the duration of catheter use, and these materials include silicone, Teflon, and latex.
  • The internal cavity of the catheter: it is preferable to use the least possible volume of the internal cavity to drain urine efficiently.
  • Catheter design: such as length, shape, characteristics, and the outer surface of the catheter. Determining the appropriate design also depends on a number of factors such as where the urine emptying package is placed, the number of times the package is able to empty, and the person’s ability to walk.
  • The ability to install the catheter: Because the ability to install and protect the catheter is important in preventing irritation and damage to the ureter and the place where the tube is entered, and the comfort of the injured person.
  • The person’s lifestyle: The person’s lifestyle must be taken into account when choosing the appropriate type of catheter, taking into account the person’s privacy, the absence of the catheter, and the ease of carrying it.

Living with a urinary catheter

Some people may have difficulty adapting to the use of a urinary catheter, especially if it needs to be used for a long time, and some may find it difficult to have sexual intercourse, but many people can have normal sexual relations by removing the removable catheter temporarily, and using a condom. It is recommended to empty the bag or package that collects urine periodically and avoid filling it completely, and work to clean the package with a mixture of water and vinegar.[4][5]

Infection prevention

Catheter-associated UTI accounts for approximately 75% of hospital-acquired UTIs, and there are a number of tips that help prevent catheter-associated infections, some of which are listed in the following :[4][11]

  • Make sure to wash your hands well with warm water and soap before touching any catheter equipment.
  • Wash the skin at the catheter entry area with water and a little soap at least twice a day.
  • Drink enough water and fluids.
  • Make sure that the urine collection bag or package does not rise above the level of the bladder to prevent obstruction.
  • Avoid constipation by making sure to eat fiber and stay hydrated.
  • Ensure that there are no knots or bends obstructing the urethra in the catheter.

doctor review

Some cases during the use of a urinary catheter may require a doctor’s visit, including the following:[11]

  • Catheter blockage, or urine leakage around the catheter outlet.
  • Suffering from strong spasms in the bladder.
  • Note the exit of light-colored blood with the urine.
  • Blood staining the urine or noticing that drops of blood came out with it.
  • Exiting the catheter tube in case of using a stable catheter, or not knowing how to install catheters in other types of catheters.
  • Suffering from some symptoms that may indicate a urinary tract infection, such as fever, chills, and lower abdominal pain.

the reviewer

  1. ↑ “Urinary catheters”, medlineplus.gov, Retrieved 9-22-2019. Edited.
  2. ↑ “Urinary catheters”, www.healthnavigator.org.nz, Retrieved 9-22-2019. Edited.
  3. ↑ “Urinary catheter”, www.nhs.uk, Retrieved 9-22-2019. Edited.
  4. ^ a b c c c h Charlotte Lillis, “Uses and types of urinary catheter”, www.medicalnewstoday.com, Retrieved 9-22-2019. Edited.
  5. ^ a b “The Benefits of Intermittent Catheterization”, www.healthline.com, Retrieved 9-22-2019. Edited.
  6. ↑ “Intermittent Catheter Types”, www.urotoday.com, Retrieved 9-22-2019. Edited.
  7. ^ AP Jacquelyn Cafasso, “Urinary Catheters”, www.healthline.com, Retrieved 9-22-2019. Edited.
  8. ↑ “Foley Catheter Placement and Care”, www.drugs.com, Retrieved 9-22-2019. Edited.
  9. ↑ Tim Jewell, “Suprapubic Catheters”, www.healthline.com, Retrieved 9-22-2019. Edited.
  10. ↑ “Urinary catheterisation”, www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au, Retrieved 9-22-2019. Edited.
  11. ^ AB “Urinary catheter”, www.nhs.uk, Retrieved 9-22-2019. Edited.

Types of urinary catheterization