first generation

The first generation of computers appeared in the fifties of the twentieth century, as these computers used vacuum tubes, or valves, as the main electronic component, and one of the most important advantages of this vacuum tube technology is that it paved the way for the emergence of the electronic digital computer, and valves were the electronic devices available only during Those days made computing possible.[1]

second generation

Second-generation devices used the transistor, invented by Bell von Laboratories in 1947, which was a cheaper, less power-consuming, much more reliable and compatible alternative to vacuum tubes. Magnetic cores served as the primary memory model for second-generation devices, while magnetic tape and disks were The new magnetism acted as external storage devices, and unlike the simple programming language that was used for first-generation devices, second-generation programmers used assembly language for the first time.[2]

third generation

Transistor-based computers were replaced by an integrated circuit (IC), which was developed in 1965, which enabled hundreds of components to be placed on a small silicon chip 2 or 3 square millimeters long. Computers became smaller, cheaper, more powerful and flexible. The electrical signal paths are less, which led to an increase in the speed of the computer, and these characteristics were due to the small size of the devices of this generation, and a number of programs participated in the computer resources at the same time, which is called multitasking, and it is indicated that most of the programming languages ​​used at present are They are the same as third-generation languages, although some originated during the second generation.[3]

The fourth generation

The integrated circuit of the very large scale moved to the fourth generation devices, or the generation of microprocessors, where it became possible to place tens of thousands of transistors, and other circuit elements on (VSLI) circuits, which in turn enabled the placement of the entire central processing unit on a single chip. Compact and more efficient computers than the third generation devices, and one of the most important features of this generation’s devices is that computers have become financially accessible to everyone, and have spread in the consumer market, and major high-level programming languages ​​have developed such as C language and C++ language, The DBASE language, in addition to the advent of the graphical user interface, and the mouse were mass-produced.[2]

Fifth generation

Ultra Large Scale Integration is a key component of 5G hardware. It has enabled microprocessor chips to contain tens of millions of components. Compact construction, affordability, and availability of wireless networks have led to the proliferation of desktop computers. , paving the way for laptops, smartphones, tablets, and software video consoles, which have made great strides in the field of artificial intelligence, and have proven high-level programming languages ​​such as C, C ++, and Java. , and (.Net) its importance in fifth generation systems.[2]

the reviewer

  1. ↑ “Introduction to Computers and Generations of Computers”,, Retrieved 6-12-2018, page 4, Edited.
  2. ^ a b c Dan Ketchum, “Differences Between Generations of Computers”,, Retrieved 6-12-2018. Edited.
  3. ↑ Robert Mannell, “A Short History of Computers and Computing”,, Retrieved 12-6-2018. Edited.

The stages of development in the invention of the computer

Writing – on the date : – Last updated: 2022-05-10 23:21:01