Definition of the era of the Dawn of Breeds
The dawn of dynasties is the archaeological term for an era in Mesopotamia history in the modern era 2900-2334 BC, during which some of the most important cultural developments including the emergence of cities, the development of writing, and the creation of governments were made, preceding the Uruk period ( 4100-2900 BC) when the first cities were established in the Sumer region of southern Mesopotamia and its successor was the Akkadian period (2334-2218 BC) when Sargon of the Akkad conquered Mesopotamia (pp. 2334-2279 BC) and he and his successors ruled the empire Akkadian.
The archaeologists divide the times into three sub-periods:
The first dynasty 2900-2800 BC
The second dynasty 2800-2600 BC
The Third Dynasty 2600-2334 BC
These arbitrary divisions are considered by some scholars and historians as there is no clear demarcation line separating the line from the other, yet there is enough of the subtle difference that division is justified.
The first family at the dawn of dynasties
Between the Uruk period and the dawn of dynasties, rivers flooded the Shuruppak City area, causing severe flooding from the southern plains to the north. This event, which severely disrupted society, is the origin of the story of the Great Flood as envisioned as the wrath of the gods in the formation of Eridu and Atrahasis, the works of country Mesopotamia is now recognized as a source of inspiration for Noah’s famous tale and his discontinuity in the Bible, for the exact history of the flood being disputed but most scholars have identified it as c. 2900 B.C.
The second dynasty at the dawn of dynasties
The second family period witnessed the development of these previous developments with the expansion of individual cities, the technology was improved and the family model maintained a coherent structure for the developing culture.
The stability provided by the family model allowed the cultural expansion that necessitated invention and innovation, ceramics and minerals were produced collectively while jewelry of gemstones became the mainstay of the upper class as did the soft fabric woven by the workers.
This model worked well for the upper class, and mass-produced items, bread, and woven fabric were also lucrative business items, but this wealth never flowed to the lower-class workers who produced the goods.
As the wealth and power of cities grew, it attracted more and more people from rural areas, cities provided protection from raiders, slaves, and elements in addition to providing jobs that were, in any case, better than trying to live as an independent farmer who left those who stayed in rural communities The burden of providing at least the same amount of grain to cities is then increasing more than they were before.
These scenes clearly depict citizens, not foreign prisoners, held as slaves, but nothing has been done to stop this practice because of the same household model that brought society together. Presidents of the upper class of families maintained large property and workers were expected to produce in those lands according to expectations Families, and this put a huge burden on workers to the point that they saw the worldly work in the city is the best.
And he noticed during this period changes in the climate that the rivers were transporting much less water and perhaps pushing more people to search for their survival in the city, and each city was competing with the next stage of population growth, and when the cities became richer, I wanted more. Around 2700 BC, Enmebaragesi of Kish led the Sumerian cities in a war against the war of the first war in recorded history and defeated the Elamites, and he returned the spoils to Sumer this is one example of the city-states working together for a common goal but, as the scientist Samuel Noah Kramer points out, was They have to find a way to do this individually and collectively long before the war.
The third dynasty at the dawn of dynasties
The early third family period witnessed the rise of Kish in the north and Uruk in the south as dominant political powers, this is the period in which kings are better in terms of archaeological history, but the dynasties of some cities, such as Lagash, are still not included in the list of Sumerian kings and dates often do not coincide That list with other kings with dates in other documents or archaeological record.
Great Uruk kings, for example, were included, such as Mickey Kian Gacher, Enmerkar who was said to have founded Uruk for the first time, Lugalbanda, Domuzzi, and hero Gilgamesh at the beginning of the early third family era C. 2600 B.C. but also associated with earlier rulers such as Enmebaragesi and later kings such as Eannatum (2500-2400 B.C.), it appears that there is no inconsistency between these differences in chronology.
The first king of the first Lakhsh family, Ur- Nanshe, established Lakhsh as a strong political presence and his son that Ianatum expanded his policies and conquered both Sumer Eannatum, calling on Enlil (the god of the Shepherd Lagash) and Ninurta (god of war) to lead his armies against other city-states and conquered Every Sumer including Uruk and Kish then moved against the Elamites and took large parts of a region. By the time his campaigns ended, he had established the first empire in Mesopotamia, which was largely composed of city-states from his former colleagues. His empire was challenged. Soon after his death, his successors were unable to preserve it.
Whatever the royal accomplishments of her grandson, Ur al-Zabbabah, were overshadowed by myths that came to define the era of the man who enters history as his bearer, Sargon claims from the biography of Akkad that scholars consider a legendary version of events that he was born in the north, the illegitimate son of “change”, who He gave birth to a secret and then floated it on the river in a basket of reeds that brought him to the city of Kish where the royal gardener found him Akki. Sargon grew up in the palace and ascended to the prestigious position of the Ur-Zebaba cup holders who preferred him until the king had a disturbing dream indicating that Sargon would depose him.
Around the same time the king of Uma and the city of Lugalzagisi embarked on a campaign of conquest of Sumer’s reunion under one ruler who was exactly the same as Enatom had done earlier, Ur sent the Zebabs Sargon as envoy to Lugalzagisi, who was on the march towards Kish, probably on conditions, but according For legend, at the request of the King of the Nation, he killed -, but Sargon impressed Lugalzagisi, but the king ignored the request and asked Sargon to join him, they walked together on Kish Island and took it and fled the zebabs from the city and nothing else was known about him.
Shortly thereafter, Sargon turned against his benefactor, defeated him, and pulled him in chains, with a rope around his neck, to the city of Nippur, where he was publicly humiliated as he walked through the sacred gateway of the god Enlil where Lugalzagisi trusted his victory and then, presumably, he was executed, and then Sargon declared himself A king who proceeded to conquer all of Mesopotamia and found the Akkadian Empire, the first multinational political entity in history.