Alienation is a language that means displacement from the homeland, and marriage to non-relatives, and this word has other meanings, including: psychological, religious, social, juridical, and legal. Twenty-ten.
Alienation in philosophy
Self-alienation is one of the most important and difficult concepts of alienation, and the views of philosophers differed in defining alienation, as he sees:
- (Sigmund Freud): That alienation is a feeling of dissociation and conflict between the forces of the subconscious buried in the self and the conscious self.
- (Gwen Neteller): that alienation is a psychological state of a normal individual, where the alienated person is the one who feels that he is a stranger in his society, or he is the one who has been transformed into a human being who has an unfriendly relationship with his society in the concept of the culture of that society.
- (Morri Levin): The characteristic that distinguishes an alienated person is his feeling that he is unable to achieve his correct mission in his society.
- Eric and Marie Josephson believe that alienation is an individual feeling, or a state of detachment from oneself and thus detachment from others and the world at large.
- (Jane Calves) that it is an expression of a position of denunciation, or the type of the absolute subject of the physical real world.
- The existentialist philosopher (Jean-Paul Sartre) that alienation is a natural state in a world without purpose and purpose, as the irrational of existential philosophers in general and Sartre in particular is a basic category.
- As for the social philosophers, such as: (Emile Durkheim), (Friedinand Tonnes), (Max Weber), and (George Semmel), they are the owners of the theory (public society): that the place of alienation is in society, where (Durkheim) explains the idea of The dissolution of the individual from every legal bond, where he sees alienation in the dissolution of all social bonds resulting from industrialization, the demise of the traditional society and the change in its features. It led to the lack of social relations, and the increase in bureaucratic relations in it. As for (Simmel) he spoke about the tension that afflicted social life between the personal and the subjective on the one hand, and the impersonal and objective on the other.
- The philosophers of the social contract, namely (Hobbes), (Locke), and (Russeau) have described the loss of some of his rights in modern non-traditional societies, where Rousseau sees that an organized society – traditional or modern – is a place to eliminate the The personality of the individual and his natural rights.
There were many types of alienation from one researcher to another, including (Frederick Wells) who distinguished three types of this concept, as for (Ernest Schachell) he distinguished four types of it, and (Melvin Seaman) who had five types, as for the six types mentioned by (Louis Feuer) confined to the following:
- Impotence, i.e. the feeling that is born in the depths of the human being that his destiny is not in his hand.
- Meaninglessness is the feeling that life has no meaning or purpose.
- Cultural isolation, the separation of the individual from the values of his society.
- Non-standard, the individual’s failure to adhere to the prevailing standards in his society.
- Self-alienation, which means the separation of the self from the depth of the self, its ambitions and goals.
The first expression of the concept of alienation was found in Western thought through the Old Testament’s conception of paganism, as it is possible to see the roots of this concept through the writings of (Plotinus), in addition to the Christian doctrine that talked about the idea of sin and the idea of salvation, as it exists in Saint Augustine , and Martin Luther King. Alienation in that period meant jihad in order to separate the human self from all its shortcomings, and make it in a state of identity with a transcendent being who is God.
The concept of alienation in philosophy