Hypertension

Blood pressure is defined as the force that blood exerts on the walls of blood vessels[1]It is formed when the left ventricle contracts forcefully, pumping and releasing blood loaded with oxygen and nutrients from the heart to the rest of the body through the arterioles.[2]. Blood pressure depends on two main factors, namely; The amount of blood that the heart pumps, versus the resistance of the arteries to blood flow through them; The more blood that is pumped, and the narrower and more resistant the arteries, the higher or higher the overall rate of blood pressure[3]Hypertension is one of the most common health problems, and is considered a basic and important risk factor that may increase the likelihood of developing many diseases such as: chronic kidney disease, strokes, heart attacks, and vascular diseases.[4].

It is worth noting that blood pressure readings appear in the form of two numbers; So that one is in the numerator and the other is in the denominator of the reading, and the number in the numerator represents the value of systolic blood pressure; It is the highest value that the blood pressure reaches during the heartbeat, and the number in the denominator represents the diastolic blood pressure; Which represents the minimum value that the blood pressure reaches during the relaxation of the heart between beats, and it can be said that a person has high blood pressure if his blood pressure readings are 130/80 mmHg or more.[5]

Symptoms of high blood pressure

High blood pressure develops over many years, and the individual may suffer from high blood pressure for a long period of time, without noticing or feeling it, as most individuals with high blood pressure do not know that they have it, due to the absence of warning signs and symptoms on them. remarkably,[3]Hence, high blood pressure is sometimes called the silent killer. It is worth noting that blood pressure may rise in healthy people temporarily, during strenuous physical exertion, or exercise, in addition to the possibility of a temporary rise when a person is exposed to a certain event, which can affect him psychologically and expose him to anxiety and tension for a short period, and in In this case, the rate of blood pressure returns to its normal rate after the removal of the cause[1]. The following is a statement of the most prominent symptoms of chronic high blood pressure, which a person may suffer from:[3][1]

  • Suffering from headaches and headaches.
  • Nosebleeds, which may indicate a severe rise in pressure.
  • Difficulty or shortness of breath.
  • sweating;
  • Facing sleep problems and difficulties.
  • Feeling anxious and tense.
  • Flushing or redness of the face.

Risk factors for high blood pressure

Hypertension is of two types or classifications; They are primary hypertension and secondary hypertension; As for secondary hypertension, it is the result of a clear cause, as it occurs as a result of an exacerbation of another pathological problem such as imbalances, renal diseases, tumors, or the presence of problems in the blood vessels, or endocrine glands, and other problems. As for primary high blood pressure, it is often not possible to know the cause that leads to it. It can be the result of a genetic genetic factor, or based on the influence of surrounding factors on the individual, and many other factors. The following is a list of a number of the most common risk factors, which can increase the likelihood of developing high blood pressure:[3][1][4]

  • Age: The risk of developing high blood pressure increases with age, and in general, it can be said that the risk increases after reaching the age of sixty, as the arteries become more solid and harsh with age, in addition to becoming more narrow.
  • Belonging to certain races: It has been noted that there are some ethnic groups who are more susceptible to high blood pressure than other groups; Whereas, people of African descent have been found to develop the disease at a younger age and with a higher incidence.
  • Having a family history of blood pressure: It has been found that high blood pressure is linked to genetics and genes among families.
  • Being overweight or obese: The greater the weight of a person, the greater the amount and volume of blood needed to transport oxygen and nutrients, to supply the cells and tissues of the body with them, and the greater the volume of blood in the blood vessels, the greater the force of pressure on the arteries.
  • Having other health problems: such as: kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, high cholesterol, and many other health problems and disorders.
  • Gender: Men record a higher rate of high blood pressure than women, especially before they reach 64 years of age, but the rate becomes higher for women than for men, after they reach 65 years.
  • Direct or passive smoking: Tobacco works to raise blood pressure temporarily, whether it is through chewing or smoking. In addition, it has been found that the chemicals in tobacco destroy the inner covering of the arterial walls, which over time leads to their narrowing, increasing the chance of heart disease.
  • Eating high amounts of salt: Eating excessive amounts of table salt and foods that contain high amounts of it, can increase the proportion of sodium in the body, which may lead to fluid retention and increase, and thus to a rise in blood pressure.
  • Drinking alcoholic beverages: Consuming large amounts of alcohol on a continuous basis leads to high blood pressure. In addition, drinking alcohol leads to heart damage over time.
  • Low potassium intake: Low potassium intake in the diet makes a person more likely to develop high blood pressure. This is because potassium regulates the amount of sodium in cells, and therefore a lack of potassium means an increase in the amount of sodium, and thus high blood pressure.
  • Other factors: Examples include: lack of movement, pregnancy, and others.

the reviewer

  1. ^ a b c Markus MacGill (11-21-2018), “Everything you need to know about hypertension”, medicalnewstoday.com, Retrieved 17-1-201. Edited.
  2. ↑ Matthew Hoffman (14-3-2017), “Picture of the Heart”, webmd.com, Retrieved 17-1-2019. Edited.
  3. ^ a b c c “High blood pressure (hypertension)”, mayoclinic.org, 5-12-2018, Retrieved 17-1-2019. Edited.
  4. ^ AB Matthew R Alexander (17-7-2018), “Hypertension”, emedicine.medscape.com, Retrieved 17-1-2019. Edited.
  5. ↑ “Know Your Blood Pressure Numbers”, www.webmd.com, Retrieved 29-1-2019. Edited.

blood pressure symptoms

writing – on the date : – Last updated: 2022-06-15 16:06:01