Suleiman the Magnificent.. one of the most prominent Ottoman sultans, and one of the most important kings who ruled the world. His rule extended for 48 years, during which the country witnessed the height of its supremacy at the military, political, and economic levels. .
Who is Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent?
Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, was the tenth ruler of the Ottoman Empire and the most important sultans in it at all. He was born on the sixth of November of the year 1494, and he is the only son of Sultan Selim I. He also excelled in military sciences.
As a result of this brilliance, he was able to reach the authority and rule that he reached. Suleiman the Magnificent later moved to Istanbul with his father and settled there, until King Selim I appointed him the Emirate of Saruhan, currently known as “Manisa” located in western Anatolia.
The formal and moral characteristics of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent was tall, with a broad face, and arched nose, as well as a light beard and heavy mustache, and his build was characterized by strength despite his thinness. His religious piety, good manners and courage, was skilled in fencing and bow.
In addition to all of these qualities, he loved poetry, and was fond of studying it, and was able to compose a collection of poetry, as well as developing and developing the art of poetry, and supporting poets on the financial and moral level, as well as his interest in science and literature as well, so the country represented during his reign a great economic and political power in the world .
Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent and the rule
After the death of Sultan Selim I, his son Suleiman the Magnificent took over the rule of the country in 1520, eight days after the news of the death of the Sultan was announced. From the countries to the Ottoman rule, at that time the Ottoman Empire was at the peak of its sway and influence.
It is worth noting that Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent assumed power with absolute ease, due to the lack of another heir to share in the ruling, because he is the only son of his father, King Selim I, but he faced some problems at the beginning of his rule, including the many revolutions that appeared in “Egypt and the Anatolian Plateau”, so he made Much effort was made to put down these revolutions until stability returned to the Ottoman Empire.
Political achievements of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent managed to achieve many achievements at the military and political levels, and through it the Ottoman Empire expanded, as his achievements included the following:
- The conquest of Crimea, located in the north of the Black Sea.
- Control over the capital, Belgrade, which is the capital of Serbia.
- The invasion of Austria, and the siege of “Vienna, the capital”, which was the furthest spot the Ottoman Empire had reached.
- Control of some islands in the Mediterranean.
- The agreement with the French government, to support the Ottoman Empire in the war against Portugal, Spain and Austria, by making a treaty with them stipulating that.
- It included the countries of Sana’a, Aden, the countries located on the Bab al-Mandab Strait, and even the borders of the Ottoman Empire.
- The control of Tunisia and the countries of the North of the African continent to repel the attack of the Portuguese and Spanish forces, thanks to the commander Khair El-Din Barbarossa.
- Standing in the face of the Safavids in Iraq after their interference in the country’s political affairs, so he was able to invade them and take control of the country’s capital, “Tabriz”, in the year 1536 AD.
Scientific and social achievements during his reign
Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent was able to advance the country scientifically, socially and culturally. He had many achievements in raising the level of civilization in the country in general, as follows:
- He was interested in issuing laws regulating the state for all its fields, and hence he was named Suleiman the Magnificent for enacting many laws derived from Islamic Sharia.
- Improving education by encouraging the learning process, supporting and encouraging scholars, and establishing schools, institutes, and libraries, including the Sulaymaniyah Library.
- He built many urban buildings, including mosques and hospitals, and the remaining monuments bear witness to the splendor of design and beauty in architecture, including the “Sulaymaniyah neighborhood.”
What are the weakness factors in the rule of Suleiman the Magnificent?
Despite the many advantages and advantages witnessed by the rule of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, there were some factors of weakness in his rule, which led to the shrinking of the Ottoman Empire’s influence and weakness, and thus ambitions emerged.
- Allowing foreign merchants to act freely, granting them many privileges, which harmed the economy of the Ottoman Empire, and giving foreign countries an opportunity to interfere in the country’s affairs.
- Some individuals close to the sultan interfered in the affairs of government and participated in making decisions in the state, which caused them to do many things out of the eyes of the Ottoman sultan.
- Supporting the role of the Janissaries, “they are an elite of infantry and knights of the Ottoman army,” their participation in the fighting and their departure from obedience to the Ottoman Sultan, and the increase of their influence through their participation in trade away from the military barracks, which led to their abandoning their military duties, and exposing the country to external dangers.
- The growing influence of the Sultan’s ministers and some of his wives and the increase of their personal ambitions, as this was represented in the killing of his sons, “Mustafa and Ba Yazid”, and from here, strife erupted in the bonds of the state as a result of personal disputes.
The death of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent died on September 7, 1566 AD, after he took command of the army in the war against the Emperor of Austria, “King Ferdinand I”, after the treaty between him and the Ottoman Empire was dissolved, after he invaded one of the emirates of the Ottoman Empire. Sultan Suleiman fell ill due to his old age, as he was 72 years old at the time.
Sayings about Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
Sultan Suleiman was known for the safety of his decisions, the strength of his management of the country, and the extent of his extensive culture in many sciences, so he had several aphorisms that were taken from him and have remained associated with his name to this day, and perhaps the most prominent of his sayings are the following:
- “When I die, they take my hand out of the coffin, so that people can see that even the Sultan has left this world with an empty hand.”
“He who takes money today, takes orders tomorrow.”
“Judgment is not by the sword, but by justice.”
“I would love to die a fighter for the sake of Allah.”