change of physical state
The term change of physical state expresses the process of moving a substance from one phase to another based on the circumstances surrounding it that led to a change in its state only, not its components, so that the components of the substance and its molecules remain the same before and after the process of changing the physical state, and these changes are directly related to the physical properties of the substance such as the degree of Melting and boiling point, and changes in the physical state center around the transition between the three phases of matter, i.e. solid, liquid and gas.
Forms of physical change of state
Energy is the main factor for changing the states of matter so that its loss or gain transforms the state of the material physically. For example, ice needs to absorb energy from the surrounding environment in order to melt and turn from its solid state to a liquid. The following are the physical changes that occur to the material:
Change between solid and liquid
Matter changes between the solid and liquid states as follows:
- Freezing, and in this process the liquid loses energy, which lowers its temperature to turn from a liquid state to a solid state, like freezing water.
- Melting, the opposite of freezing, is where a solid gains energy to turn into a liquid, like melting ice.
Change between liquid and gas
A substance changes from a solid to a gaseous state by two processes:
- Evaporation, in which a liquid acquires energy based on dismantling its molecules and turning them into a gas, such as the evaporation of boiling water or the evaporation of water molecules in bodies of water.
- Condensation, a process of energy loss in gas molecules, which was preventing the gathering of gas molecules with each other, which leads to their bonding again and the formation of droplets of liquid on cold surfaces, just as it happens on window glass in the winter.
Change between steel and gas
Usually a substance passes through a liquid state when it converts between a solid and a gas, but some physical changes do not need this stage, such as:
- Sublimation, which is a term that expresses the transformation of a substance from a solid state to a gaseous state by gaining enough energy for the material to break up molecules, greater than that required for its transformation into a liquid state to turn directly into a gas, such as the so-called dry ice.
- Precipitation, which occurs when gas molecules lose energy to a large extent to convert directly into solid particles, such as the formation of frost in the winter.
- ↑ “What are Physical Properties and Changes?”, chemistry.elmhurst.edu, Retrieved 12-18-2018. Edited.
- ^ ABC “4.3 Changes of State”, www.ck12.org, Retrieved 12-18-2018. Edited.
- ↑ “Matter: Definition & the Five States of Matter”, www.livescience.com, Retrieved 18-12-2018. Edited.
Research on physical state changes