A person suffers during his life, whether a man or a woman, with many urinary tract diseases, especially those that affect the bladder, some of which are simple and disappear within days, while others bring challenges that can affect social life, exercise, sleep and even the ability to work.
Multiple bladder diseases
In this topic, we will learn about the most common bladder diseases that affect humans, in addition to their symptoms and causes.
In most cases, urinary tract infection is the main cause of people getting cystitis, and it occurs when bacteria enter the bladder or urethra and begin to multiply, and thus these bacteria lead to infection and cause inflammation, according to the website Health Line Medical.
However, cystitis is not always due to an infection. For example, people can become infected by taking certain medications or using poor hygiene products.
Cystitis often occurs suddenly without warning and can infect anyone, but it occurs more often in women.
Symptoms of cystitis?
- Frequent urination
- Urine that is cloudy or smelly
- Blood in urine
- Low fever
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Feeling of pressure or a full bladder
- Abdominal or back cramps
And if a bladder infection spreads to your kidneys, it may become a serious health problem. We recommend that you seek medical attention immediately. In addition to the symptoms mentioned above, symptoms of kidney infection include the following:
- Back or side pain
Causes of cystitis
The type of cystitis that affects a person varies according to the causes that led to it, and possible causes of cystitis include the following:
- Urinary tract infection
- Take some medications
- Exposure to radiation
- Continuous use of the catheter
- Not good hygiene products
Types of cystitis
Cystitis can be acute or interstitial, as acute cystitis is a condition that occurs suddenly, and interstitial cystitis is a chronic or long-term condition of cystitis that affects multiple layers of bladder tissue.
Both acute and interstitial cystitis have a set of possible causes:
Bacterial cystitis occurs when bacteria enter the urethra or bladder and cause infection.
This can also result when the bacteria that grow naturally in your body become unbalanced, and thus an infection leads to a bladder infection.
Therefore, it is important to treat cystitis before the infection reaches your kidneys.
Cystitis caused by medications
Some medications can cause cystitis, as the drugs pass through your body and eventually exit through your urinary system, and thus may irritate your bladder as it leaves your body.
For example, chemotherapy drugs can cause cystitis.
Radiation therapy is used to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors, but it may also damage healthy cells and tissues, so if you are exposed to radiation therapy in the pelvic area, you may develop cystitis.
Inflammation of the bladder with a foreign body
Continuous use of a catheter, which is a tube used to facilitate the exit of urine from the bladder, can increase the risk of bacterial infection and tissue damage in the urinary tract.
Cystitis due to detergents
Sometimes some hygiene products can irritate the bladder, especially if it is a poor type. Products also include the following:
- Sperm killer jelly
- Use the diaphragm with spermicide
- Feminine hygiene sprays
- Chemicals from bubble bath
Cystitis associated with other conditions
Cystitis sometimes occurs as a symptom of other medical conditions, such as:
- kidney stones
- Immunity deficiency Virus
- Prostate enlargement
- Spinal injuries
Urinary incontinence disease
Urinary incontinence or loss of bladder control is a common and often embarrassing problem, and its severity ranges from occasional urine leakage when coughing or sneezing to the urge to urinate so sudden and forceful that you may not be able to reach the toilet in time.
Although it often affects people with age, incontinence is not an inevitable consequence of aging, so if incontinence affects your daily activities, do not hesitate to visit your doctor directly. For most people simple lifestyle changes or treatment can occur. Medicinal to relieve urinary incontinence.
Symptoms of enuresis
Many people experience minor urine leaks, and others may lose small to moderate amounts of urine frequently. Symptoms of urinary incontinence include the following, according to the website: Mayoclinic Medical.
- Urine leaks out when you put pressure on your bladder by coughing, sneezing, laughing, exercising, or lifting something heavy.
- You have an urgent and sudden urge to urinate followed by involuntary loss of urine.
- You experience frequent or continuous drips of urine due to your bladder that does not empty completely.
- A physical or mental disability prevents you from reaching the toilet in time.
Causes of enuresis
Urinary incontinence is not a disease but a symptom, so it can be caused by daily habits, underlying medical conditions, or physical problems, so a thorough evaluation by your doctor can help determine the cause of urinary incontinence.
Some drinks, foods, and medicines may act as diuretics – stimulate the bladder and increase urine volume and include:
- Soft drinks and soda water.
- Artificial sweeteners.
- Chili pepper.
- Foods high in spices, sugar and acid, especially citrus fruits.
- Heart and blood pressure medications, sedatives, and muscle relaxants.
- Large doses of vitamin C.
Urinary incontinence may also be caused by an easily treatable medical condition such as:
Urinary tract infection: Infection can irritate the bladder resulting in strong urges to urinate and sometimes incontinence.
Urinary incontinence can also be a chronic condition caused by underlying or changing physical problems such as:
Pregnancy: Hormonal changes and increased fetal weight can lead to stress incontinence.
Birth: A vaginal delivery can weaken the muscles needed to control the bladder, as well as damage the bladder nerves and supportive tissues, leading to pelvic floor prolapse. With this prolapse, the bladder, uterus, or small intestine can be pushed down from the usual position and protruded into the vagina. These bumps are associated with urinary incontinence.
growing old: Aging of the bladder muscle can reduce the bladder’s ability to store urine, and involuntary bladder contractions also increase as you get older.
Menopause: After menopause, women produce less estrogen, a hormone that helps maintain the health of the lining of the bladder and urethra, and deterioration of these tissues can worsen incontinence.
Prostate enlargement: Urinary incontinence, especially in older men, is often caused by an enlarged prostate gland, a condition known as benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Prostate cancer in men: Stress incontinence or urge incontinence can be associated with untreated prostate cancer but very often, enuresis is a side effect of prostate cancer treatments.
Overactive bladder disease
An overactive bladder is a condition in which the bladder presses on urine at the wrong time and causes a combination of symptoms that can cause you to need to urinate more often, increased urgency, experience urine leakage and the need to urinate at night.
And one or all of these symptoms can cause great stress and negatively affect a person’s quality of life, without a doubt.
An overactive bladder is a group of symptoms, according to the website Cleveland Clinic Which includes:
Symptoms of an overactive bladder
Urinary urgency: It fails to put off the need to urinate, so when you feel you need to urinate, you only have limited time to get to the bathroom.
Urination frequency: People with these symptoms need to urinate more often and it is usually an increase in the number of times they urinate compared to previous times:
Urge incontinence: In this case, the person will experience immediate leakage of urine as soon as they feel the urge to urinate.
Nocturnal urination: This symptom is characterized by the need to get up and urinate at least twice each night.
Causes of an overactive bladder
An overactive bladder can be caused by many things, or even a combination of causes, including:
Weak pelvic muscles: Pregnancy and childbirth can cause the pelvic muscles to stretch and weaken (the muscles and tissues that support the organs in the lower abdomen) and this can cause the bladder to sag from its normal position and thus cause urine to leak.
Nerve damage: Sometimes signals are sent to the brain and bladder to empty them at the wrong time, and this may happen due to some diseases or trauma such as:
- Pelvic or back surgery
- Herniated disc
- Exposure to radiation
- Parkinson’s disease
- Multiple sclerosis
- brain attack
Medicines, alcohol and caffeine: All of these products can weaken the nerves, affecting the signal to the brain. This causes the bladder to fill quickly and leak.
Infection: Infections such as a urinary tract infection can irritate the nerves of the bladder and lead to pressure on the bladder without warning.
Overweight: Being overweight puts extra pressure on your bladder, which in turn leads to urinary incontinence.
Estrogen deficiency after menopause: This hormonal change may contribute to urine loss due to the urgency, so ask your doctor whether vaginal estrogen therapy is right for you.
Interstitial cystitis disease
A chronic problem that causes bladder pain and frequent and urgent urination. The pain ranges from mild discomfort to severe, and it is part of a group of diseases known as “painful bladder syndrome”.
Because interstitial cystitis has a wide range of symptoms and severity, most experts believe it is composed of several diseases. WebMD Medical.
If you have urinary tract pain that lasts for more than 6 weeks and does not result in other conditions such as infection or kidney stones, you may have IC.
Whatever it is called, the symptoms of interstitial cystitis bring many challenges. The disease can affect your social life, exercise, sleep, and even your ability to work.
Symptoms of interstitial cystitis
Interstitial cystitis signs and symptoms vary from person to person. If you have interstitial cystitis, the symptoms may vary and get worse over time as well.
Interstitial cystitis signs and symptoms include:
- Pain in the pelvis or between the vagina and anus in women.
- Pain between the scrotum and the anus in men.
- Chronic pelvic pain.
- Urgent need to urinate.
- Frequent urination in small amounts often throughout the day and night up to 60 times a day.
- Pain or discomfort as the bladder fills and relieves after urination.
- Pain during sexual intercourse.
The severity of symptoms may vary from person to person and some people may experience symptom-free periods.
Although the signs and symptoms of interstitial cystitis may resemble those of a chronic urinary tract infection, there is usually no infection.
However, symptoms may be exacerbated if a person with interstitial cystitis develops a urinary tract infection.
Causes of interstitial cystitis
In fact, the exact cause of IC is not known, but there are many factors likely to contribute to interstitial cystitis.
For example, people with interstitial cystitis may also have a defect in the protective lining of the bladder, which allows toxic substances to leak in the urine to irritate the bladder wall.
Other possible but unproven contributing factors include an autoimmune reaction, genetics, infection, or susceptibility to disease pathogenesis.
Prostate cancer disease
Prostate cancer is one of the 10 most common types of cancer around the world, and it is the fourth malignant tumor that affects men and spreads 3 times more than women.
Prostate cancer often begins in the cells of the urinary epithelium that line the inside of the bladder, while most bladder cancers are diagnosed at an early stage, when the cancer is most treatable.
But even bladder cancers in their early stages can come back again after successful treatment.
For this reason, people with bladder cancer usually need follow-up tests for years after treatment to look for bladder cancer that has recurred, he says. Cancer Center.
Prostate cancer symptoms
Signs and symptoms of bladder cancer may include:
- Blood in urine
- frequent urination
- Pain or burning during urination
- Back ache
- Poor or interrupted urine flow, or the need for pressure to empty the bladder
- The urge to urinate frequently at night
- Erectile dysfunction
- Feeling of discomfort or pain when sitting due to an enlarged prostate
If the cancer has spread beyond the prostate gland, symptoms may include:
- Pain in the back, hips, thighs, shoulders, or other bones
- Swelling or fluid buildup in the legs or feet
- Unexplained weight loss
Causes of prostate cancer
Bladder cancer begins when there are changes (mutations) in the DNA of cells in the bladder. The cell’s DNA contains instructions that tell the cell what to do.
The changes tell the cell to multiply quickly and to continue life when healthy cells die. The abnormal cells form a tumor that can invade and destroy normal body tissues.
Over time, the abnormal cells can detach and spread throughout the body.
Types of bladder cancer
Different types of cells in the bladder can become cancerous and the type of bladder cell in which the cancer begins determines the type of bladder cancer, the types of which include the following:
Urinary epithelium cancer
It occurs in the cells of the urinary epithelium that line the inside of the bladder that expand when your bladder is full and contract when your bladder is empty.
These cells line themselves inside the ureters and urethra, and carcinomas in these locations can also form urothelial carcinomas.
Squamous cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with chronic bladder irritation – for example, from an infection or from long-term use of a urinary catheter.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is one of the most common cancers, especially in areas where schistosomiasis infection is common.