States of matter
The word substance refers to all things in the universe, which have mass and take up space, and each substance is made up of a group of atoms. Matter is classified on the basis of its proximity to each other and its interdependence, as the solid substance is characterized by its strength, preservation of its shape and size, and the liquid substance is characterized by preservation According to the introductory chemistry texts, states of matter are classified as three, and they are solid, liquid, and gaseous, while the advanced texts classify them as four. Cases, by adding the state of the plasma to the previous cases, and the characteristics of the plasma are similar to the characteristics of the gas, as its shape and size change, but in addition to that it changes its electrical charge.
Solid matter maintains a constant size and shape, as it consists of closely aligned particles, which makes it unable to move except in a very small way, as its movement is limited to a simple vibration of the atoms in place resulting from the movement of electrons, so when the solid is placed in a container, it do not take on the shape or volume of the vessel, even if the solid is pressed tightly into a vessel; Its size will never change under any circumstances.
A liquid substance is defined as that substance that retains its volume without retaining its shape, as when a liquid substance is poured into a container; It takes its shape while retaining its volume as long as the evaporation process does not occur, and these characteristics are considered as criteria by which the liquid substance is distinguished from the rest of the substances such as solid and gaseous, the solid substance maintains a constant size and shape, while the gaseous substance does not retain either a fixed shape or volume.
The gaseous substance is characterized by the presence of large distances between its particles, and it contains great kinetic energy, so if it is not trapped in a container, it will spread to infinity, while if the gas is placed in a container, it will spread throughout all parts of the container, and the gas can be compressed by reducing the volume The vessel, as this reduces the distances between the gas parts, which increases the collisions that occur between them, and the pressure can be increased by raising the temperature, and the gas molecules contain great kinetic energy that enables them to overcome the bonding force of the molecules, and as a result, the gaseous substance It has neither a fixed shape nor a fixed volume.
- ↑ Anne Marie Helmenstine (31-1-2018), “What Are the States of Matter?”, www.thoughtco.com, Retrieved 11-6-2018. Edited.
- ^ AB Mary Bagley (11-4-2016), “Matter: Definition & the Five States of Matter”, www.livescience.com, Retrieved 11-6-2018. Edited.
- ↑ Bruce E. Poling, John M. Prausnitz, John Shipley Rowlinson, “Liquid”, www.britannica.com, Retrieved 6-11-2018. Edited.
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