Egypt has become in the rule of Ptolemy the First and is the first ruler of Egypt and that was after the death of Alexander the Great, and it was he who made Egypt under Ptolemaic jurisdiction, and he built the capital of Egypt at the time, Alexandria, and built the Lighthouse of Alexandria and other additions he made, and a sequence of After him the Ptolemaic rulers on Egypt.
The era of the Ptolemies
The Ptolemaic dynasty dominated Egypt for a long time up to three centuries, and the strange thing is that during the rule of Egypt they did not become Egyptians, besides they isolated themselves in the capital of Egypt which is Alexandria, and they did not have the marriage of relatives and their last kings are Cleopatra VII and she spoke the Egyptian language well And other languages, and the first rulers are Ptolemy I and then his son Ptolemy II.
Why the Ptolemies did not become Egyptians
Although they coexisted with the Egyptians, they remained Greek. When doing a search for the Ptolemaic state in Egypt, you will find that the Ptolemies were not greatly affected by the Egyptians in their traditions and language, and sisters and cousins were married in order not to integrate with the Egyptians, and most of the marriages that took place She was between brother and sister, and Cleopatra was the only one from the Ptolemies to learn to speak the Egyptian language, and she was making a lot of effort to get closer to the Egyptian people.
Kings of the Ptolemaic states in order
Ptolemy I Soter
The sudden death that occurred to Alexander the Great in 323 BC was the cause of chaos in the country, as he did not specify an heir after him, and a split occurred between the people at that time and most loyal generals of Alexander were granted and he is Ptolemy who is considered the most daring among the leaders of Alexander .
He was a childhood friend of Alexander who was his bodyguard and official gourmet and was often close to him, and some hearsay states that he was the illegitimate son of his father Philip II, and he was keen to establish himself in Egypt with the aim of becoming a great Egypt again, and he fought many wars in favor of Egypt .
Ptolemy the Second
Ptolemy I died in 282 BC, and his successor was his son Ptolemy II Philadelphi. He married his son, regent King Lyseimachus Arsene I for the purpose of the alliance, but after the death of his first wife, Lycimus chose to marry Arsinoe the second his son Ptolemy I and his mistress Bernice, and persuaded Aseno II Her husband killed his eldest son on trumped-up charges, and that caused a stir among many of his fellow officers.
After the death of Lysimachus, Ptolemy married his sister, who is the king’s widow, and he was keen to expand Egypt, and he fought and failed in the war against Macedonia in Egypt, and he established trade centers along the Red Sea, and he was keen to enlarge the library and museum.
Ptolemy the Third
On the death of Ptolemy the Second, Ptolemy the Third ascended the throne and married Barnis II of the Greek city of Sirin. He had six children, including Ptolemy IV and a princess called Bernice.
Ptolemy III invaded Syria as a way to support his sister-in-law Antiochus II in the third Syrian war against Seleucus II.
Ptolemy the Fourth Philosopher
Then the successor of Ptolemy the Fourth, the philosopher, came to the Egyptian throne based on the traditions of the family, and he married his sister Arsinoe the Third, and he got a degree of success in the Fourth Syrian War against Antiochus III, and the only achievement he did was build a tomb to honor both Alexander and Ptolemy, But he and his wife were killed in a coup d’etat.
Ptolemy the Fifth Epiphanes
Because of the sudden death of his parents, he inherited the throne as a child, and he married the Seleucid Princess Cleopatra I. And wars took place after his rise by the Seleucids and Macedonians to take over Egypt, and the Battle of Banium occurred, which was the reason that Egypt lost a valuable region in the Aegean Sea And Asia Minor, including Palestine, and during his rule a cleavage occurred in the Egyptian city of Thebes, which lasted twenty years.
Ptolemy VI Philometor
His reign began as small as his father and was with his mother until his unexpected death, and despite the occurrence of many problems with his brother, he married his sister Cleopatra the second and began his turbulent era, and Egypt was invaded twice by Antiochus IV so that an army approached Alexandria And, with the help of Rome, he regained control of the country, and then with his brother he reached a good solution, and Ptolemy VI took control of Egypt while Ptolemy VIII ruled Sirin, but Ptolemy VI died soon in battle in Syria.
Little is known about the verdict or the person known as Ptolemy VII or if he had already ruled, but Ptolemy VIII, the younger brother of Ptolemy VI, entered the throne in a true Ptolemaic manner, married to his widow Cleopatra the Second, to replace her with her daughter, his niece, Cleopatra the Third.
It destroyed the civil war of Egypt that lasted from 132 to 124 BC, and in particular destroyed the capital, Alexandria, which happened to have hated Ptolemy VIII. Indeed, due to intense hatred for the persecution and severe expulsion of the city’s population, finally an amnesty was reached in 118 BC.
Ptolemy VIII succeeded his eldest son in 116 BC. Ptolemy IX Sotter II of Atheros was like many of his predecessors who would marry two of his sisters, Cleopatra IV and mother of Bernice IV, and Cleopatra V Sirin who gave him two sons, and he ruled jointly with his mother Cleopatra III until 107 BC when he fled to Cyprus after being overthrown by his brother He regained the throne in 88 BC and ruled until his death in 80 BC.
He was working as a governor to Cyprus until his mother brought him to Egypt until he replaced his brother, and he killed his mother Cleopatra the Fourth and then married the daughter of Cleopatra the Fifth Sirin who is his sister’s son, he left Egypt and was succeeded by his son Ptolemy XI, and he was ruling in conjunction with his stepmother Cleopatra Bernice until He killed her, and he was subsequently killed by the Alexandrians.
Ptolemy XII, who was Neos Dionysus, was another son to Ptolemy IX, he succeeded Ptolemy XI, he married his sister Cleopatra Trevena, and he was expelled in 58 BC, but he managed to regain the throne with the help of the Syrian ruler Gabinus and was able to survive Through bribes and his connections to Rome.
He is the brother and husband of Cleopatra VII and was notorious, and did not last long, and was a period of a lot of turmoil and his army was defeated in battle and he drowned in the Nile when his boat capsized.
After Ptolemy XIII was another brother of Ptolemy XIV (59-44 BC) who briefly worked as ruler of Cyprus and later married his sister (based on Caesar’s wishes), ruling until his sudden death, perhaps due to poisoning by orders of his chief.
The last Ptolemaic Pharaoh
Finally, the final pharaoh of Egypt was Cleopatra VII known simply to history as Cleopatra, ruled Egypt for 22 years, controlling a large part of the eastern Mediterranean like many women of her time, was highly educated, as she was equipped for the throne by her father Ptolemy II Ten in the traditional Greek (Hellenistic) way, I loved the Egyptian people, and participated in many Egyptian festivals and celebrations, as well as being the only Ptolemaic to learn the Egyptian language besides speaking Hebrew, Ethiopian and other dialects.