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Tuesday July 28, 2020

Islamic art in the Fatimid period

The Fatimid period had a clear impact on Islamic art, and when researching Islamic art we will notice that the spotlight is on the Fatimid era, because this era had a clear impact on Islamic art.

History of the Fatimid period

From the tenth to the eleventh centuries, the region of present-day Algeria, Tunisia, as well as Sicily, Egypt, and Syria were all under the rule of the Fatimid family, and the Fatimid rulers followed the proportion from the daughter of Muhammad Fatima through the seventh Ismaili Imam, which was a clear reason threatening political and religious authority Of the Abbasid Sunni Orthodox Caliphate.

And the city of Mansoura is one of their first capitals that was established in 947, and many struggles occurred at the beginning of the Fatimid era of Egypt in 969, and the Fatimids were keen in this period to establish the city of Cairo or the victor and they considered it their new capital, and among the reasons that made them come to Egypt is a massive prosperity in the first place because of its mediating role in the lucrative trade between the Mediterranean and India, and Cairo soon competed with the Abbasid capital, Baghdad.

The influence of the Fatimid era on Islamic art

The richness of the Fatimid court was a clear reason for a remarkable rise in the decorative arts, and this resulted in Cairo becoming the best and largest cultural center in the Islamic world. The stately rock and ivory are also not only limited to this but also competed in wood carving.

All of these developments that went through were a reason that textile factories that were run by government officials at that time were created Taraz in the name of the caliph elsewhere in the Egyptian region, and small animals and various inscriptions are considered the main decorative in textiles that increased its beauty and value .

The pottery industry has witnessed a remarkable development, in the Nile Delta in particular, a new and more subtle method was being followed in the pottery industry. As for the crystal crystal, it has developed significantly, and it has been subject to continuous and clear development.

Not only that, as the works of art in this period embodied the creativity of the Fatimid craftsmen, and among the things revived in this period is the luster technique on ceramics that was originally developed in Iraq and then in Egypt and Syria, and in this period it has been The signature of some pieces of metallic luster from this period by the people who made it, and this indicates the appreciation that the two craftsmen acquired in this period, and among the development images that occurred during this period was that the carving was done on wood and jewelry with great skill and much innovation was being done One of the things that increased the value of what was being made.

The Fatimid artists created new decorations that were extra large for them, and they benefited greatly from the figurative forms that were being implemented, including human and animal forms, and when looking at these forms you feel that life is in them, and at the same time the traditional plant and engineering motifs maintain their abstract quality All this was the cause of a clear development in it.

The role of the Fatimids in architecture

With regard to architecture, the Fatimids followed the Tulunid techniques and used similar materials but developed a lot of them, [1] Most of the early buildings in the Fatimid era were brick, although stone from the twelfth century was used mainly, and the Fatimids combined elements of eastern, western, African, Greek, and Coptic architecture, as well as between early Islamic styles and the middle architecture of the kingdom, due to the They were tolerant of people of different ethnic origins and religious opinions, and at the same time they were adept at abusing their abilities.

Also, a lot of Fatimid architecture works that reflect architectural details imported from northern Syria as well as from Mesopotamia, may be partly due to the fact that they often use architects from these places to build their buildings, and similar building materials were used to These times, I was influenced by many civilizations.

As the Fatimid architecture was following traditional plans and aesthetics, but it differed clearly in architectural details such as the huge gates of some mosques and elaborate facades, and the Fatimids contributed clearly to the mosques, this is in addition to that they had developed the use of the arch of the four-corners and the sump knob, and Saqqara Muqarnas is a complex innovation, often this design was obtained from an Iranian inspiration, as well as a similar system was applied in building windows, and for the arch of shoes in Egypt under the rule of the Fatimids and not of Persian origin as is common, and among the mosques that were built in this The period was anthropomorphic evidence of architecture in this period and its distinctive decorations. The mosques in this period are as follows:

Al Azhar mosque

It was built after the commissioning by Al-Muizz of the religion of God, and its name is a tribute to Fatima Al-Zahra, the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him, and Johar Al-Skali was built beginning in the year 970, and this mosque was considered one of the first mosques that were built in the city, and the first Prayers in this mosque in 972, and it was considered a center for education later, and later some adjustments were made in this mosque.

Al-Hakim Mosque

It has been named after the imam, who is the ruler of God. He is the third Fatimid caliph who ruled Egypt and who ordered that this mosque be built. Building shape. [2]

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