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Saturday July 11, 2020

Information about the history of Andalusia –

A map of the history of Andalusia is one of the important historical maps. Therefore, it must be recognized. When the Muslims began expanding their wars and invading neighboring countries, including the countries of Andalusia that are currently Spain, where they were initially in the form of emirates during the era of the Umayyad Caliphate, then they were divided and eventually dismantled and led to the fall of the Islamic caliphate Among these Andalusian emirates are sects, Cordoba, Granada, Almoravids and Almohads.

Who gave the name of Andalusia?

Before we get to know the map of the history of Andalusia, it is important to know who called it this name, Andalusia, which is also called Muslim Spain, the Islamic kingdom of Andalusia that occupied most of the Iberian Peninsula from 711 AD until the collapse of the Spanish Umayyad dynasty in the early eleventh century.

Al-Andalus is an Arabic-speaking name that Muslims (Moroccans) have called for the entire Iberian Peninsula, and it is likely that it refers to the saboteurs who occupied the region in the fifth century, and in the eleventh century, when European Christians began to restore the Iberian Peninsula, Andalusia was only the region that did not It is still under Muslim control and thus has become permanently linked to the modern region.

Andalusia was the name given to lands under Islamic control in the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages between the conquest of Muslims in 711 and their expulsion in 1492. [1]

Conquest of Andalusia

The Muslim forces, led by Tariq bin Ziyad and Musa bin Nusair, came down on April 27, 711AD in the Gibraltar region and on July 19th and defeated the Visigothic king Roderick at the Battle of Guadalet.

Between 711 and 716, Muslims took control of the entire Iberian Peninsula except for the Pyrenees and Cantabria mountainous regions, and this was often accomplished by concluding agreements with the leaders of the collapsed Visigoth settlements, who were unable to offer much resistance, and agreed to make agreements with Invading forces in exchange for concessions. [2]

Andalusia in the past

The map shows the history of Andalusia since the third millennium BC, the land of Spain was between two oceans and two continents, and was the oldest known monarchy “Tartessos” that originated in the 11th century in southern Spain affected by Greece and the Phoenicians.

The widespread and common activities at that time were agriculture and livestock, as well as the mining industry and gold processing, then the Torditanians followed, which is an Iberian tribe, and then the Carthaginians came later they took a settler for them.

The relationship of Andalusia with Rome

During the third century BC the Romans defeated the Carthaginians in the Punic Wars, Rome controlled Andalusia for 700 years, Andalusia provided the Roman Empire with food, oil, wine and minerals, and Rome was called Constantinople, and it looks larger than the eastern world due to its control of Spain.

The beginning of Andalusia at the hands of Muslims

At the beginning of the eighth century, according to what was stated in the map of the history of Andalusia, the Arabs managed to cross Gibraltar and spread quickly in the Iberian Peninsula, in the year 773 Abd al-Rahman I declared the establishment of the Emirate of Cordoba, which despite its political and administrative independence, remained spiritually and morally linked to Islam.[3]

The first Muslim kings in Andalusia

However, Abd al-Rahman II, who was the founder of the independent Emirate of Cordoba, imposed Islam on the local population, as well as the Christians who lived in Islamic lands, and their number decreased significantly.

With the arrival of Abd al-Rahman III in 912 AD, Cordoba was declining in prosperity and on the verge of collapse, due to fighting, internal wars, attacks from Christian kingdoms in the north, and the threat of maritime trade.

Despite this, Abd al-Rahman III managed to repel Christians and compel them to pay taxes, and established military bases in the Strait of Gibraltar. [2]

Cordoba during the era of the Islamic caliphate

Cordoba became the center of different cultures and religions. Trade, science, handicrafts and arts witnessed a long period of success, starting in the year 1031 and then the disintegration of Andalusia into small Islamic principalities. ) And Seville (1248).

The Christian monarchs maintained their kingdom in Granada for two and a half centuries, and the last king of the Andalusian Islamic kingdom named Moore Bou Abdil handed over the city of Granada to the Catholic monarchs Isabel and Fernando in January 1492 and Moore Bouabdil left to the Albuzara Mountains. [3]

Cults in the era of the Andalusian Caliphate

The result of the civil war was the reason for the establishment of the sectarian kingdom, which was a number of small independent states, each of which was a major economic center for the sects.

Although they lived through a period of economic summit, they were besieged by the problems arising from the exorbitant taxes needed to fight the ongoing wars against the Christian kingdom in the north and repel invasions from North Africa, such as the Almoravids (1090-1102), the Almohads (1145-1146) and the Marinids ( 1224), which led to its division and collapse, as shown by the map of the history of Andalusia.

Re-invasion

Mentioned through a map of the history of Andalusia between 718 and 1230 the major Christian kingdoms of Lyon, Castile, Portugal and the Crown of Aragon became resistant to Muslims on the Iberian Peninsula.

The main alliance came in the thirteenth century as Leon and Castile united and the Crown of Aragon began to turn to the Mediterranean to start their war against Muslims.

The so-called reoccupation of the Iberian Peninsula was completed in 1492 with the fall of the Victorian kingdom of Granada by Catholic kings.

The Victorian Kingdom or the Principality of Granada

In 1238 from the map of the history of Andalusia, Muhammad al-Ghaleb entered the first Granada and established the Nasrid kingdom, whose sultans ruled the Kingdom of Granada for 15 generations, the Nasirists had a good relationship with the Castilians from the beginning, but over time they had to end this relationship in order to preserve their independence.

The Nasiriyah kingdom covered a large area, which included a number of Andalusian provinces which are Malaga, Almeria, Granada and part of Cadiz, which made the kingdom control over a long stretch of coast that included important ports and prosperous agricultural lands, the last Sultan was Abu Abdullah, fell during his reign The Kingdom of Granada became part of the Kingdom of Castile. [2]

Al-Andalus after the Islamic caliphate

Through the map of the history of Andalusia the new world was discovered by Christopher Columbus, and the golden age of Andalusia began, especially in Seville, which became the main place for all commercial activities with the West Indies and the cultural center of Spain.

Since the year 1503 AD, signs of prosperity appeared, including ships loaded with gold and silver, from the New World to the port of Seville, but political rivalries, economic mismanagement, loss of hegemony over the oceans, and the outbreak of four epidemic pests representing the beginning of the political and economic decline of Seville and Spain as a whole in the first half of the seventh century ten.

The problems faced by Andalusia 19th century

Through the map of the history of Andalusia, in the eighteenth century a caliphate war was demonstrated, as there were differences between the British and the Spanish over Gibraltar.

At the same time, the Spanish colonial empire was retreating and conflicts over the succession to the Spanish throne were violent, too. In the middle of the century Spain passed a time of social tensions and liberal revolutionary ideas.

At the end of the nineteenth century, Andalusia again suffered some liberal revolutions, and then entered its war against the United States of America, which caused the end and collapse of the Spanish colonial empire.

Spain in the 20th century

In the first half of the twentieth century, Spain was suffering from the dictatorship of King Primo de Riveras, which was dependent on the second republic, after which Spain entered into social and political conflicts and disputes with neighboring countries, so Spain did not participate in the two world wars, but since 1936 the civil war broke out and destroyed parts Great country.

After the coronation of King Juan Carlos I, he immediately restored democracy that had given rise to new possibilities and opportunities for different regions, and Andalusia became independent at that time.

Economic and social progress in the 1960s and 1970s in southern Spain was strengthened by the flourishing tourism, and new perspectives on Andalusian agricultural production were being worked on. [3]

After we got to know the map of the history of Andalusia, we find that it played a fundamental role in influencing Europe and its neighboring countries, where Islamic rule continued in Andalusia for nearly 800 years, and today, southern Spain is still known as Andalusia and it is one of the sectors that make up Spain In our time and preserves many buildings dating back to Islamic Andalusia, and carrying words in Spanish, which have their origins in the Arabic language.

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