India is a country located in the continent of Asia. It is a republic consisting of 29 states. Delhi is the official and national capital. India is also the second largest country in terms of population after the Republic of China.[١] India is bordered to the north by Nepal, Bhutan and China, to the west by the Arabian Sea and Pakistan, to the east by Myanmar and Bangladesh, and to the south by Sri Lanka. The rupee is the official currency of India, and it gained its independence from the British Mandate on August 15, 1947.[٢]

India’s population

The estimated population of India is 1,320,844,000.[١] The population in the State of India belongs to many religious and ethnic groups, the most famous of which are the Aryan Indians who live in the northern Indian regions, and the Dravidian Indians who live in southern India. Society in India also witnesses a disparity in the economic conditions of the population; In terms of quality of life, degree of education, and others.[٣]

With the eleventh century AD, many tribes and peoples migrated to India, including Iranians and Afghans, which led to a high population increase. The Indian people use a variety of languages ​​and dialects to communicate with each other; They speak about 14 major languages, and nearly 1,000 traditional and popular languages ​​and dialects. The Indian languages ​​belong to two families; They are Indo-European and Dravidian, and the equivalent of 73% of the population uses the first language family, which is Hindi as the official language in India, and English is used as a second language in most Indian regions. The Hindu population constitutes 82.6%, the Muslim population is 11.4%, and Christians are 3%.[٣]


The economy in India depends on the agricultural sector, whether traditional or modern, local handicraft production, and public services, which are the main source of economic development in India, and represent nearly two-thirds of the gross domestic product. Especially the foreign ones, and all these sectors contributed to the development of the Indian economy and its transformation to dependence on the open market economy.[٤]

Modern economic policies in India have contributed to reducing restrictions on the industry by privatizing many public sector companies and supporting foreign investments. many areas, and India seeks in the future to enhance its integration with the global economy; By relying on all available means in the various economic sectors.[٤]


The geography of India constitutes a large area of ​​special land in Asia, and is divided into a group of diverse geographical manifestations that can be divided into three main sections, namely:[٥]

  • The Northern Mountains: It is a chain of the Himalayas that separates the Indian lands from the central part of the continent of Asia, and is divided into three main parts, namely:
  • Inner Himalayas: It is known as Zanzikar.
  • Central Himalayas: The most important of which is the Bangui mountain range.
  • The Outer Himalayas: It is known as Birbangal.
  • The plains of Hindustan (the plains of northern India): It is one of the most important regions in India. It is characterized by a set of natural features, including its flat surface, and the lack of undulation of its lands in general. Many important Indian cities are located in these plains, including the city of Agra, the city of Calcutta, and the Ganges river, which It is considered one of the most famous rivers in India, and these plains are also distinguished by their arable soil.
  • Deccan Plateau: It is a plateau that constitutes a large area in India, and Mount Ghat is the highest mountain peaks on its land, and most of the Indian rivers originate from these mountainous areas. It is called the Satpura Range, and in its western part are the Vendia Highlands, and in the south are the Ajanta Highlands.

the climate

The general climate in India is witnessing a remarkable diversity, and it appears clearly with a group of general climatic influences; The desert regions witness a decrease in the level of precipitation annually by about 13 cm, but in return the Himalayas receive heavy precipitation ranging from 250-760 cm annually, while in the low-lying areas the precipitation rate reaches less than 100 cm.[٦]

Winter affects the general weather in India; Snow falls on the northern mountainous heights, and frost spreads in the northern part of the country from November to February, but when the month of May comes, the general weather is witnessing a gradual rise in degrees The temperature, sometimes up to 49 degrees Celsius, and the general humidity rises in the time period between the months of April to September.[٦]

The monsoons affect the general climate in India, which leads to the division of the year into four seasons according to the following:[٦]

  • Rainy season: It is the season that extends in the time period between the months of June and September.
  • Wet season: It is the season that extends between the months of October and November.
  • The dry cold season: It is the season that extends between the months of December and March.
  • Hot Season: It is the season that extends between the months of April and May.

the reviewer

  1. ^ AP R. Champakalakshmi, Romila Thapar, Philip B. Calkins, and Others (22-6-2016), “India”, britannica, Retrieved 24-1-2017. Edited.
  2. ↑ “India”, Al-Jazeera, accessed on 01-24-2017. act.
  3. ^ AB The International Arab Encyclopedia (1999), The International Arab Encyclopedia (Second Edition), Saudi Arabia: Encyclopedia Works for Publishing and Distribution, p. 127, 128, Part 26. Adapted.
  4. ^ AB “INDIA”, The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency, Retrieved 24-1-2017. Edited.
  5. ↑ Safouh Khair, “India (Geography)”, The Arabic Encyclopedia, accessed on January 24, 2017. act.
  6. ^ “INDIA”,, Retrieved 24-1-2017. Edited.

India’s population