Volcanoes: are places from which molten rock (magma), hot rock fragments, and hot gases emanate from the earth’s interior to settle on the outer surface of the earth’s crust. Volcanoes are found in areas with high lava deposits, with most active volcanoes located near the margins of the Earth’s crust, and another type of volcano called hot spot volcanoes. in the center of the plate. The eruption of volcanoes results in different eruptions, some volcanoes spewing poisonous gases, some spewing crushed rocks, and others spewing a torrent of ash that mixes with rivers or snow around it to form destructive mud that causes avalanches, which leads to heavy losses in lives and property, especially In densely populated regions of the world.[1]

How is a volcano formed?

volcanic hazards

  • Volcanic Gas: Volcanoes regularly emit volcanic gases that can be dangerous to the surrounding environment when they are present in concentrated levels. The fall of volcanic ash, a mixture of carbon dioxide and fluorine on the soil leads to crop failure, animal death and deformation, and exposing humans to diseases. The sulfur dioxide released from the volcano also reflects solar radiation into the stratosphere while absorbing Earth’s radiation, cooling the Earth’s temperature.
  • Landslides: The massive energy from erupting volcanoes can cause large landslides moving at speeds of more than 100 kilometers per hour, as happened with the eruption of Mount Saint Helens in Washington in 1980, which formed the largest landslide recorded in history with a distance of up to 36 km of ash and rock. Landslides can combine with surrounding rivers, snow or rain to form a mixture of water and rocks known as lahars that can destroy anything in their path.
  • Lava flows: Many volcanic eruptions release lava flows, which are a mixture of hot rock fragments and toxic gases that move almost like liquid out and away from the volcano, shattering, burying and burning anything in their path.
  • Volcanic ash: Huge plumes of volcanic ash can spread over large areas of the sky, able to turn daylight into complete darkness and dampen air traffic, as happened at the Iceland volcano in 2011, where flights to and from northern Europe were suspended for more than a week .

volcanic monitoring

Volcanologists predict volcanic activity by taking real-time measurements and comparing them with what has happened in the past, by using a variety of tools and techniques to monitor temperatures, gas emissions, water levels, ground movements, and changes in the shape of the area. To determine a clear picture of the current state of the volcano and compare it with historical data, which volcanologists then interpret against the historical data. Volcanologists issue a warning of the danger of an eruption when these measurements deviate from their values ​​or reflect on historical measurements. Developed countries use different systems to issue warnings before an eruption occurs, where normal volcanic behavior is represented by the number 1 or green, while the potentially devastating impending eruption of the volcano is represented by the number 4 or red.[3]

the reviewer

  1. ↑ “volcano”, www.britannica.com, Retrieved 23-5-2018. Edited.
  2. ↑ Basil Harba, Please Tell Me (First Edition Edition), Saudi Arabia: Al-Obeiklin, p. 235-236-237-238. act.
  3. ^ a b “Volcanoes”, www.nationalgeographic.org, accessed on May 23, 2018. act.

How is a volcano formed?

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