The gallbladder is located in the right part of the abdomen below the liver, and the gallbladder can be defined as a small pear-like sac. Chemical substances inside the gallbladder to form what are known as gallstones, or gallstones, which are crystal-like deposits, and their size ranges from small pebbles the size of sand grains to large pebbles the size of a golf ball, and can form one or several pebbles at the same time The problem of gallstones is a common health problem that affects nearly twenty million people living in the United States of America.[1][2]

gallstone treatment

Gallbladder stones are usually not treated unless they cause cholecystitis, bile duct obstruction, or if the stones move from the gallbladder to the intestines. The methods of treatment are as follows:[2]

  • Cholecystectomy: Through this method, the gallbladder is completely removed, either through endoscopy, or through an open surgery, according to the patient’s health condition, and people who undergo open cholecystectomy need a longer period to stay inside Hospital, and a longer recovery period from surgery, and the patient may need to take a drug containing ursosdeoxycholic acid to prevent stones from forming again.
  • Ursodeoxycholic acid: This drug can be taken in cases where gallstones are formed from cholesterol, as this acid reduces the proportion of cholesterol in the bile, which leads to the gradual disintegration of the formed stones, but this type of treatment needs for a long time, which may reach two full years. until the results of the treatment appear.
  • Lithotripsy: In this method, ultrasonic waves are directed at the gallstones, which in turn disintegrate the stones, making it easier for the stones to come out and get rid of them through the stool. This method can only be used if: The presence of a few stones inside the gallbladder.

gallstone symptoms

Symptoms of gallstone formation may not appear in many infected people, and symptoms usually appear when the bile duct is obstructed, and according to the American College of Gastroenterology, 80% of people do not show any symptoms or signs When they have gallstones, and if gallstones cause symptoms, they are often represented by the person feeling pain in the right and upper part of the abdomen, and the patient may suffer from pain at intervals when eating meals that contain high levels of fat, and the pain usually does not last for more than A few hours, and one of the other symptoms that can appear on a person is the appearance of what is known as biliary colic, and this colic is represented by the patient’s suffering from the following:[3]

  • Dark-colored urine.
  • Mud-colored stools.
  • Collywobbles.
  • burping;
  • diarrhea.
  • Indigestion.
  • nausea;
  • vomiting;

gallstone complications

Gallstones may be accompanied by a number of different health complications, including the following:[4]

  • Cholecystitis: Stones formed in the gallbladder may cause cholecystitis, which in turn may lead to fever and severe pain.
  • Obstruction of the common bile duct: gallstones may block the bile ducts responsible for transporting bile from the gallbladder or liver to the small intestine, which may cause a bile duct infection or jaundice.
  • Pancreatic duct obstruction: Pancreatic juices aid in the digestive process, and this juice passes through the pancreatic duct, which forms in the pancreas and ends in the common bile duct. To pancreatitis, a serious health condition that often requires hospitalization, and causes severe and persistent pain in the abdominal area.
  • Gallbladder cancer: The risk of gallbladder cancer increases in the case of gallstones, but it is worth noting that gallbladder cancer is a rare type of cancer.

Risk factors for developing gallstones

There are many factors that may increase the risk of developing kidney stones, including the following:[2][4]

  • Treating menopausal women with hormone replacement therapy.
  • Taking medications that lower cholesterol, such as statins.
  • Having diabetes.
  • pregnancy.
  • Having a family history of gallstones.
  • Significant weight loss.
  • Oral contraceptives taken by women.
  • Women undergoing treatment with high doses of estrogen.
  • Eating more meals that contain high amounts of fat or cholesterol.
  • Eat meals low in fiber.
  • Aging progression.
  • Lots of sitting.
  • Genetic changes.
  • Excess weight, or obesity.
  • Women have twice the chance of developing gallstones than men.
  • Having a liver disease.
  • Native Americans or American Indians, and Americans of Mexican descent.

the reviewer

  1. ↑ “Understanding Gallstones — the Basics”,, Retrieved 26-5-2018. Edited.
  2. ^ APT “Everything you need to know about gallstones”,, 4-12-2017, Retrieved 26-5-2018. Edited.
  3. ↑ Brindles Lee Macon, Winnie Yu, Rachel Nall, “Understanding Gallstones: Types, Pain, and More”,, Retrieved 26-5-2018. Edited.
  4. ^ a b “Gallstones”,, 3-13-2018, Retrieved 5-26-2018. Edited.

gallstones and its treatment

Writing – on the date : – Last updated: 2022-05-12 02:18:01