The Evian Agreement was signed between the French side and the Algerian side on the eighteenth of March of the year one thousand nine hundred and sixty-two. This agreement provides for the end of the Algerian revolution, and the two parties agree on a ceasefire and the organization of a popular referendum; for self-determination, bearing in mind that the result of this referendum was the vote of the Algerian people; It is worth noting that what paved the way for this agreement was the great loss of France after the liberation revolution that erupted in the year one thousand nine hundred and fifty-four, in addition to the financial and economic crises of France, and the pressure of public opinion, as France found that the military option is not the appropriate solution ; To resist the Algerian revolution.
Pursuant to the Evian Agreement, another conference was held that aspired to end the struggle in the city of Tripoli, reach the independence and reconstruction of Algeria, and among the principles that were advocated at that conference: the pursuit of democracy according to the Islamic faith, the adoption of socialism as a model, the opportunity for education, and the upgrading of all individuals The individual’s livelihood, raising the status of the Arabic language, and getting rid of all forms of alienation.
Terms of the Evian Agreement
The Evian Agreement resulted in six main chapters:
- Announcing a general amnesty and a ceasefire between the two parties.
- France’s recognition of Algeria’s unity, and the right of the Algerian people to self-determination, through a popular referendum for a maximum period of six months.
- the status of a provisional government consisting of three French and nine Algerians; To run the country’s affairs during the transitional period.
- French settlers retain rights before choosing their final nationality, whether Algerian or French.
- The evacuation of French forces from Algeria within three years.
- France retained some economic interests and cultural privileges, and the two sides pledged to cooperate in exchange for Algeria to benefit from French financial aid.
Opinions on the Evian Convention
The Algerian leaders had conflicting opinions regarding the texts of the Evian Agreement. The opinions were divided into three sections, as follows:
- Supporters: It is the group that did not care about the content as much as the need for independence, which made it support the decision of the agreement, where it found a victory for the Algerian people, and a way to get rid of poverty and devastation that lasted more than a century.
- The Marhalis: They are the group who considered that the agreement represented one of the stages of the revolution’s victory, and necessitated the acceptance of this agreement. In order to get rid of French colonialism, it also showed that the next stage is the stage of getting rid of the effects of colonialism, through the nationalization of French companies, and the socialist orientation.
- The Rejectionists: They are the group that rejected the agreement completely, and considered it in violation of the principle of comprehensive independence, in addition to the fact that it considered independence as incomplete independence; Because the agreement – in its view – linked the two fates of Algeria and France from a cultural and economic point of view.
- ^ AB “The Evian Agreements.. Ending 132 years of French occupation of Algeria”, www.aljazeera.net, accessed on 7-1-2019. act.
- ↑ Jabali Rabeh, in Ramzi, The Meeting of the Ten Colonels during the Liberation Revolution, pg. 53,56. act.
- ↑ – Restoring national sovereignty and building the Algerian state, p. 11. Disposition.