Constantinople

The history of the city of Constantinople dates back to the Neolithic era, where antiquities were found in it dating back to 7000 BC, indicating that it was inhabited at that time. that after the Roman Empire was divided into two parts; Eastern and Western Empires In the year 395 AD, Constantinople became the main capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, and Constantinople became a great place in various political, military, religious, as well as commercial aspects.[1]

Constantinople (English: Constantinople) is one of the most important few mega cities in the world located between the continents of Asia and Europe on the Bosphorus Strait, and because it is a transit point between the two continents, it had an important role in various cultural, political as well as trade fields, as it was a major center of the Byzantine Empire. Constantinople has been known by many names throughout history; Such as Byzantium, Astana, Islampol, and New Rome, but this name did not gain popularity, so it was later called the city of Constantine (Constantinople), and is currently known as Istanbul.[2][1]

Constantinople and its present name

Constantinople is currently the Turkish city of Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and its largest port. The area of ​​the old city is approximately 23 km2, and the current city is much larger than it.[3] Constantinople did not lose its position despite the transfer of the capital to Ankara during the reign of Ataturk.[1] Istanbul is one of the cities that attracts tourists due to the presence of many archaeological and historical monuments in it. The Hagia Sophia Church is one of the most important archaeological monuments in Istanbul, in addition to the presence of traces of twenty-five churches dating back to the Byzantine era. Another important landmark in Istanbul is the Golden Gate that was built In 390 AD, to protect the city during the reign of the Roman Emperor Theodosius II. In Istanbul there are also the remains of Constantine’s Palace, which was built in 1300 AD. This palace consists of three floors built of bricks and limestone.[3]

The cultural life in Istanbul varies, in it we find a group of associations, institutes and art centers in addition to museums, and the most important cultural landmarks in it are the following:[4]

  • The Ataturk Cultural Center is one of the most important artistic centers in Istanbul. It is located in Taksim Square, and theatrical performances, ballet and opera performances were held in it.
  • A group of public and private libraries, such as the small library Köprülü, which contains books printed in the Ottoman era, in addition to some works that were written by hand.
  • A group of museums such as the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art, the Military Museum and the Cultural Center.
  • French and German archaeological institutes.
  • Public parks, where the city contains a large number of them, as well as its own market gardens.

Constantinople conquest

The good news of our master Muhammad was the conquest of Constantinople

Our Master Muhammad – may God’s prayers and peace be upon him – announced the conquest of Constantinople, and this dream continued to haunt the Muslims, wishing for its conquest and the realization of the prophet’s good news for it. In the year 98 AH, during the reign of Caliph Suleiman bin Abdul-Malik, there was another attempt, but it was also not successful. The Abbasids also tried to conquer Constantinople more than once. The most important of these attempts in 190 AH during the reign of Caliph Harun al-Rashid was also an unsuccessful attempt.[5][6]

Constantinople remained steadfast in the face of Islamic conquests even during the era of the Ottomans, who tried to conquer it more than once. The campaign of Sultan Bayazid (the thunderbolt) on it in 796 AH was one of the most important campaigns to conquer it, as he besieged it and almost fell, had it not been for the Mongol attack on the Ottoman Empire from the east, which made the Sultan break the siege From Constantinople to confront the Mongols, and attempts continued until the reign of Prince Muhammad Al-Fateh bin Murad II, who was able to conquer it in 857 AH.[5]

Conquest plan

The conquest of Constantinople was not easy for the Muslim army, as there were a number of obstacles to this conquest, but Muhammad the Conqueror sought to remove them through three things:[6]

  • Within three months, Muhammad Al-Fateh was able to build a great fortress for the Muslims, although the construction of the fort took a longer period (a whole year).
  • Muhammad Al-Fateh cooperated with the Hungarian engineer Urban in order to manufacture powerful cannons that reach Constantinople, capable of penetrating its walls, and Urban was able to manufacture three cannons, including a large cannon, in a short period of no more than three months.
  • Mehmed the Conqueror moved his ships through a corridor he had built in the mountains, and this corridor was made of wooden bars greased with oil so that the ships could easily be transported to the bay.

After Muhammad the Conqueror got rid of all the obstacles before him, the Muslim army besieged Constantinople for fifty-three days, during which they were able to achieve a great victory and conquest.[6] They also managed to control the city, and after Muslims entered Constantinople and conquered it, Muhammad al-Fatih ordered the conversion of the Hagia Sophia Church into a mosque for Muslims, in addition to establishing a mosque in the place where Abu Ayyub al-Ansari was buried.[7]

the reviewer

  1. ^ ABC “Istanbul is the beating heart of the Turkish economy”, www.aljazeera.net, accessed on 5-8-2018. act.
  2. ↑ Sami Al-Maghlouth, Atlas of Religions, Riyadh: Obeikan, p. 264. Adapted.
  3. ^ AB Blake Ehrlich, “Istanbul”, www.britannica.com, Retrieved on May 9, 2018. act.
  4. ↑ “Cultural Life”, www.britannica.com, Retrieved 5-9-2018. Edited.
  5. ^ AB Omar Al-Omari (24-2-2010), “Muhammad Al-Fateh between science and scholars”, www.alukah.net, accessed on 5-8-2018. act.
  6. ^ APT Ragheb Al-Sirjani (2-9-2013), “Muhammad the Conqueror and the Conquest of Constantinople”, islamstory.com, accessed on 5-8-2018. act.
  7. ↑ Tamer Badr (11-3-2014), “Sultan Muhammad Al-Fateh”, islamstory.com, accessed on 7-7-2018. act.
  8. ↑ Video: The City of Constantinople.

Constantinople, what is its name now?

Writing – on the date : – Last updated: 2022-05-21 01:21:02