Cervical cancer is one of the most common types of cancer that affects women, especially in the age group between 38 and 55 years, and it is cancer that arises in the lower part of the uterus in the borders separating the vagina and the uterus. The uterus with viruses belonging to the HPV strain during sexual intercourse, where it hits the genital mucous membranes and then settles for a period of time in the uterus and then turns into cancer, and cervical cancer affects women with weak immune systems that are unable to resist viruses and women who have a sexual life active.
Cervical cancer symptoms
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding.
- Discomfort in the vaginal area and pain when urinating and during sexual intercourse.
- Abnormal vaginal discharge.
- Constipation, blood in the urine, and swelling in the leg, foot or ankle if the tumor is large and begins to attack the surrounding areas.
- Bleeding after sexual intercourse, after menopause, or between periods.
- Heavy and prolonged menstrual cycle.
- Runny nose in the vulva.
- Lower back and pelvic pain.
Cervical cancer detection
In most cases, cervical cancer is slow growing and does not show any symptoms, but it is detected through a Pap smear by taking a sample from the cervix and examining it under a microscope, so doctors recommend doing this examination regularly at a rate of once every two years to increase the chance Detecting cervical cancer early, and cervical cancer is detected in its early stages through visual observation using IVA ascetic acid.
Cervical cancer stages
- Stage zero: During this stage, cancer cells are found in the upper layer of cells in the cervical tissue, and they are localized in a specific place and it is called Carcinoma in situ.
- Stage I: Cancer cells at this stage remain localized in the cervix, but begin to attack the cervix below the upper layer of cells.
- The second stage: During this stage, the cancerous cells spread outside the cervix towards the adjacent tissues, and spread to the upper part of the vagina without reaching the lower third of the vagina or to the pelvic area.
- Stage III: During this stage, cancer cells have spread to both the pelvis, the lower part of the vagina, and nearby lymph nodes.
- Stage IV: Cancer cells have spread to the bladder, rectum, and other areas of the body.
Cervical cancer treatment methods
There are several options for treating cervical cancer, including surgical, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or the three options together at the same time. The treatment also depends on several factors, most notably the stage in which the cancer is found:
- Surgical treatment: Doctors resort to it in the early stages of cancer, and it includes the following methods:
- Radiation therapy: It is the use of high-energy rays, with the aim of eliminating cancer cells, and limiting their growth and spread. There are two types of radiotherapy:
- Cervical cancer chemotherapy: It is the use of injected anti-cancer drugs to destroy and eliminate cancer cells and prevent their growth and division.
- The removal of cancerous tissue using a laser, a surgical knife, the use of a LEEP device, or through cryosurgery, these methods are used when the cancer is at stage zero.
- Total hysterectomy: The removal of both the uterus and cervix.
- Radical hysterectomy: This is the removal of the uterus, cervix, and upper part of the vagina.
- External radiation therapy: The patient undergoes radiation sessions from a machine outside the body, five days a week.
- Internal radiotherapy: Small tubes containing radioactive material are placed in the patient’s vagina, and left for several hours or three days.
Cervical cancer treatment methods