Baalbek (Baalbek)

A Lebanese city located in the middle of the Bekaa Valley within the Baalbek district. This plain is famous for its abundance of agricultural crops; This is because of the abundance of the Litani River, on which the plains depend to irrigate its lands, and because the city of Baalbek had a distinguished location on the land lines. It was very famous throughout the ages, when the Romans built huge temples there. Nowadays, the city of Baalbek has become a magnet for tourists and Arab and foreign artists through the international festivals that are held there.

Baalbek city website

The city of Baalbek is located in the north of the Bekaa Valley, to the east of the Litani River, and this city is surrounded on the eastern and western sides by two mountain ranges, the eastern and western Lebanon chains, and the height of Baalbek above sea level is approximately 1163 meters.


The city of Baalbek was mentioned in the Bible as (Baalbak), and it was said that the word originated from two words: (Baal) and (Baq). Since the word Baal means the owner or lord, and the word Buq means the Bekaa, and they concluded that the meaning of the name is (to the Bekaa Valley), and some Arabs called it (the city of the god Baal), and in the time of the Romans, the city was called Heliopolis, meaning the city of the sun.

Archeology in the city of Baalbek

Huge temples to three of their gods were built in the city by the Romans: Hupiter, Venus, and Mercury. The Temple of Jupiter is the largest among the Roman temples. In the sixth century AD, many of the city’s landmarks were destroyed as a result of the country’s exposure to a strong earthquake, and only 6 of the 54 Corinthian columns remained.

In the period of the Umayyad rule, a mosque was built, the remains of which still remain, in front of the entrance to the Acropolis, specifically at the east of the Great Temple, and at the southern entrance we find the shrine of Sayyida Khawla, daughter of Imam Hussein.

In the city of Baalbek there are also the domes of Amjad and Doris, and these two domes are the remains of two collectors that were built from the stones that were used from the city’s temples.

Baalbek city festivals

As I mentioned earlier, festivals that attract Arab and foreign tourists and artists are held in Baalbek. Baalbek is famous for its annual international festival. The festival is held in the temples of Jupiter and Bacchus. This festival was officially opened in 1956 in the summer, and the festival was established by the wife of the former President of the Lebanese Republic, Camille Chamoun. whose name is Zalfa Chamoun.

The festival hosted international singers and dancers, as well as the most famous operas, such as the Paris and Milan Opera, and also hosted a group of giants of Arab art, including Umm Kulthum, Fayrouz, Wadih Al-Safi, Sabah Fakhri, and Sabah.

During the Lebanese war, these festivals stopped for about 22 years, and resumed again in 1997 AD, and they continue to this day.

Baalbek city