what is autism?
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a broad term used to describe a group of neurodevelopmental neurological disorders, as se disorders are characterized by problems of communication and social interaction, and people with autistic spectrum disorder often show restricted, repeated, and stereotyped interests or behavior patterns.
Autism spectrum disorder has been found in all people around world, regardless of race, culture or economic background. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), autism often affects boys more than girls, with a ratio of 4 to 1 male to female, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated in 2014 that approximately 1 out of 59 children with autism spectrum disorder were identified, and re is evidence that ASD cases are on rise as a result of environmental factors, and experts discuss wher There was an actual increase in cases or just a more frequent diagnosis.
What Are different types of autism?
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) for use by doctors to diagnose a variety of mental disorders, and fifth and newer version was released in 2013, known as DSM5 and Autism Department of five different subtypes:
- Autism with or without intellectual disability.
- With or without weak language.
- Associated with a known medical or genetic condition or environmental factor.
- Associated with a developmental, mental or behavioral neurological disorder.
- With kinetic anomaly (woody syncope) or without it.
With possibility of diagnosing a person with one or more types. People with autism spectrum before this diagnostic guide have been diagnosed with one of following disorders:
- Autism disorder.
- Asperger syndrome.
- Diffuse growth disorder.
- Childhood dislocation disorder.
It is important to note that person who received one of se early diagnoses has not lost his diagnosis and will not need to reassess it according to new evidence.
What causes autism?
The exact cause of autism spectrum disorder is still unknown, and a recent study shows that re is no single cause, but some of suspected risk factors for autism include:
Having a family member with autism.
Fragile X chromosome syndrome and or genetic disorders.
• To be born to older parents.
Low birth weight.
Exposure to heavy metals and environmental toxins.
• A history of viral infections.
Fetal exposure to valproic acid (Depakene) or (thalidomide).
According to National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), genetics and environment may determine wher a person suffers from autism, may be caused by presence of multiple sources, and concluded that it is not caused by vaccines, but a controversial study in 1998 suggested a link between Autism, measles, mumps, and rubella, but this study was refuted by or research and eventually withdrawn in 2010.