atmospheric elements

The thickness of the Earth’s atmosphere is about 480 km, but most of it is located 16 km from the surface of the Earth. The atmosphere consists of several chemical elements, and nitrogen and oxygen constitute the highest proportions of the gases present, as shown in the following table:[1]


Atmosphere (%)

Carbon Dioxide


neon, helium, methane, hydrogen

small percentage

atmospheric layers

The atmosphere is divided into several layers, each of which differs from the other with its characteristics. The layer adjacent to the Earth’s surface is the troposphere, and it is the layer in which weather changes occur. Next comes the stratosphere, which contains the ozone layer, which is one of the most important layers, as it protects the earth and living organisms from harmful ultraviolet rays by absorbing them and converting them into heat energy.[2]The next layer is the mesosphere, which is the coldest layer in the atmosphere, then the ionosphere, where temperatures begin to rise, and the last layer is the exosphere, which is the outlet to outer space.[3]

The genesis of the atmosphere

The subject of the genesis of the atmosphere is still being studied. A research team led by Dr. Mark Kendrick of the Australian National University studied samples of volcanic material from the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. The results have opened the way for new theories to be taken into account, such as icy comets or meteorites being the cause of the formation of atmospheric gases. These conclusions sparked controversy, as the most popular theory in the scientific community was that the cause of the formation of the atmosphere was water and gases from the Earth’s mantle through volcanic activities in the first 100 million years of the Earth’s life.[4]

the reviewer

  1. ↑ Tim Sharp (13-10-2017), “Earth’s Atmosphere: Composition, Climate & Weather”,, Retrieved 27-8-2018. Edited.
  2. ↑ Maya Inamura (9-16-2014), “The Science of the Ozone Layer”,, Retrieved 27-8-2018. Edited.
  3. ↑ “The Atmosphere”, Annenberg, Retrieved 8/27/2018. Edited.
  4. ↑ “Study opens new questions on how the atmosphere and oceans formed”,,28-2-2017, Retrieved 27-8-2018. Edited.

atmospheric elements