The land now known as Iraq has been called the cradle of civilization. The ancient Sumerians, Babylonians, and Assyrians developed great empires in the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. In later times, it was ruled by the Greeks, Romans, Persians, and Ottoman Turks.
The Republic of Iraq is an Arab country located in southwestern Asia, at the head of the Arabian Gulf. Iraq is bounded by its non-Arab neighbors Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, Turkey and Iran. The capital of Iraq is Baghdad, and it is also the largest city. The land area is 438,446 kilometers (175,378 square miles). In July 2000 the population was estimated to be over 22.6 million. About three quarters of the Iraqi population lives in the fertile region that stretches from Baghdad, past the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The ancient Greeks called this region Mesopotamia, or “between rivers”. For thousands of years, agriculture in the region depended on irrigation flow from these two sources.
The country consists of 18 administrative or governorate units, which are further divided into regions and sub-divisions. Iraq is a nation of various ethnic groups and cultural heritage. Iraqis of Arab descent make up 75.8% of the population, while the Kurds in Iraq make up 15-20%. Turkmen, Assyrians and other groups make up the remaining 5 percent of the population. The three governorates of Erbil, Sulaymaniyah and Dahuk form the Kurdish Autonomous Region, which is a region with limited autonomy by the Kurdish minority in Iraq. Kurdish is the official language.
During ancient times, the lands that now make up Iraq were known as Mesopotamia (“the lands between two rivers”), and it is the region that gave rise to some of the world’s oldest civilizations, including the vast alluvial plains of Sumer, Akkad, Babylon, And Assyria. This rich region, which includes much of the so-called Fertile Crescent, became an important part of the larger imperial regimes, including the Persian, Greek and Roman dynasties, and after the 7th century it became a central and integral part of the Islamic world.
The Iraqi capital, Baghdad, became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate in the eighth century. The modern nation-state of Iraq was created in the aftermath of the First World War (1914-1918) from the Ottoman provinces of Baghdad, Basra and Mosul, and derives its name from the Arabic term used in the pre-modern period to describe a region roughly compatible with Mesopotamia, and it was considered one of Empires of the world. 
Ancient political history of Iraq
Under the Abbasid rulers (750-1258), Baghdad became a center of education for the entire Islamic world. But the Mongols invaded the region in 1258, which led to its decline. After a long struggle, the Ottoman Turks defeated Baghdad, the Tigris, and the Euphrates Valley from Persia in 1638. The region remained part of the vast Ottoman Empire until the end of World War I in 1918.
Sumerians, they are the most important Ancient Civilizations of Iraq In the world, they came from ancient Iraq. The Sumerians are credited with creating the first recognizable written language, sometime around 4000 BC. They were also among the first pioneers of agriculture.
During the reign of the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 BC), Babylon became the largest city in the world.
In 586 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II occupied Judea and plundered Jerusalem, destroyed King Solomon’s Temple and transported thousands of Jews to Babylon. This period is known to the Jews as the “Babylonian Captivity.”
Nebuchadnezzar II is also said to have built the legendary Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
* In the Old Testament, God sent Jonah to the ancient city of Nineveh, near the city of Mosul in northern Iraq, to warn the people to change their evil ways. 
In 1258 Hulagu, the grandson of Genghis Khan, led an invasion that completely destroyed the Islamic capital, Baghdad. The Mongol army made a pyramid out of the skulls of Baghdad scholars, clerics, and poets.
History of Iraq after independence
Iraq gained formal independence in 1932, but remained subject to British imperial influence during the next quarter of a century of turbulent monarchy. Political instability came on a larger scale after the overthrow of the monarchy in 1958, but the installation of a socialist Arab nationalist regime – the Ba’ath Party – in a bloodless coup after 10 years brought new stability.
With proven oil reserves second in the world after Saudi Arabia, the regime was able to finance ambitious projects and development plans throughout the 1970s and build one of the largest and best-equipped armed forces in the Arab world. Soon, however, Saddam Hussein took over the leadership of the party, a flamboyant and ruthless autocrat who led the country into disastrous military adventures – the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) and the Persian Gulf War (1990-1991).
These conflicts left the country isolated from the international community and draining it financially and socially, but – through unprecedented coercion directed at large sections of the population, particularly the country’s disenfranchised Kurdish minority and the Shiite majority – Saddam himself was able to maintain his strong hold on power in the twenty-first century. . He and his regime were overthrown in 2003 during the Iraq War.
Sources of ancient Iraq history
- Geological excavations: Excavations led by an archaeologist at the University of Tübingen at the site of a settlement recently discovered from the Bronze Age in the Kurdistan region of Iraq revealed nearly 100 clay tablets dating back to the period of Assyrian Empire Central (1250 BC). 
The cache of the clay tablets was found at the archaeological site of the ancient city of Pasitke, which was discovered in 2013 by Professor Peter Pfalzner of the University of Tübingen and colleagues.
Professor Pfälzner said: “Our discoveries provide evidence that this early urban center in northern Mesopotamia settled almost continuously from about 3000 to 600 BC.”
- Sumerian writing: Writing the history of human achievement seems to have been considered a matter of little importance to these writers, and as a result, the early history of Sumer has been deduced from the archaeological and geological record more than a written tradition and much information remains unavailable to contemporary scholars.
History of rule in ancient Iraq
After World War I, Great Britain was granted control of the region as a League of Nations state (the precedent of the United Nations today, or the United Nations). The mandate period lasted from 1920 to 1932, when Iraq became an independent constitutional monarchy under King Faisal I.
From the 1930s to the 1950s, Iraqi politics was dominated by Prime Minister Nuri al-Saeed, a pro-Western leader who did much to modernize Iraq. In 1945, Iraq became a founding member of the Arab League. However, in 1958, the monarchy was overthrown in a military coup led by General Abdul Karim Qasim. Nuri al-Saeed, King Faisal II and all members of the royal family were killed and Iraq was declared a republic.